My Comedy MaryJane’s History Segments 2016


My Comedy MaryJane’s History Segment’s 2016

January








February




*************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
Donation Button for TheMaryJaneStyle Productions









Ep#30 HowTo Apply FullFashion Nylons Blind Folded TMJS


NAZ_0002 - Copy


001 - Copy tmjs 30 pic
Shop Amazon – Give the Gift of Amazon Prime 6a00d8341c8c6253ef011571db2643970b-250wi 182.3L 1920s-isis-full-fashioned-stockings-box-620x826 191355337512_1 download (1) download (2) download (3) download (4) download il_340x270.12739000 il_570xN.729531280_qxgf images (1) images (2) images (3) images (4) images (5) images (6) images (7) images (8) images (9) images (10) images (11) images (12) Shop Amazon – GoPro HERO4 Session for $299.99 images (13) images (14) Shop Amazon – Premium Home Audio Shop

images (15) images (16) images

Introducing Amazon Handmade

paperwinki tiki 001 - Copy

TheMaryJaneStyle How To Walk in The Highest of HighHeels Ep#29

TheMaryJaneStyle How To Walk in The Highest of High Heels Ep#29

1280px-Woman's_yellow_silk_shoes_1760s
High-heeled footwear is footwear that raises the heel of the wearer’s foot significantly higher than the toes. When both the heel and the toes are raised equal amounts,
as in a platform shoe, it is technically not considered to be a high heel; however, there are also high-heeled platform shoes. High heels tend to give the aesthetic illusion
of longer, more slender legs. High heels come in a wide variety of styles, and the heels are found in many different shapes, including stiletto, pump (court shoe), block,
tapered, blade, and wedge.

 

According to high-fashion shoe websites like Jimmy Choo and Gucci, a “low heel” is considered less than 2.5 inches (6.4 centimeters), while heels between 2.5 and 3.5 inches
(6.4 and 8.9 cm) are considered “mid heels”, and anything over that is considered a “high heel”. The apparel industry would appear to take a simpler view; the term
“high heels” covers heels ranging from 2 to 5 inches (5.1 to 12.7 cm) or more. Extremely high-heeled shoes, such as those exceeding 6 inches (15 cm), strictly speaking,
are no longer considered apparel but rather something akin to “jewelry for the feet”. They are worn for display or the enjoyment of the wearer.

Although high heels are now usually worn only by girls and women, there are shoe designs worn by both genders that have elevated heels, including cowboy boots
and Cuban heels. In previous ages, men also wore high heels.

In the ninth century, Persian horseback warriors wore an extended heel made up for keeping feet from sliding out of stirrups. This also kept riders still when they needed
to stand up and shoot arrows.

20151205_170144
Stiletto heel

A shoe with a stiletto heel
A stiletto heel is a long, thin, high heel found on some boots and shoes, usually for women.

It is named after the stiletto dagger, the phrase being first recorded in the early 1930s. Stiletto heels may vary in length from 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) to 25 cm
(10 inches) or more if a platform sole is used, and are sometimes defined as having a diameter at the ground of less than 1 cm (slightly less than half an inch).
Stiletto-style heels 5 cm (2.0 in) or shorter are called kitten heels.

Not all high slim heels merit the description stiletto. The extremely slender original Italian-style stiletto heels of the late 1950s and very early 1960s were no more
than 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter for much of their length, although the heel sometimes flared out a little at the top-piece (tip). After their demise in the mid-late 1960s,
such slender heels were difficult to find until recently due to changes in the way heels were mass-produced. A real stiletto heel has a stem of solid steel or alloy.
The more usual method of mass-producing high shoe heels, i.e. molded plastic with an internal metal tube for reinforcement, does not achieve the true stiletto shape.

A pair of shoes with 12 cm stiletto heels
Relatively thin high heels were certainly around in the late 19th century, as numerous fetish drawings attest. Firm photographic evidence exists in the form of photographs
of Parisian singer Mistinguett from the 1940s. These shoes were designed by Andre Perugia, who began designing shoes in 1906. It seems unlikely that he invented the stiletto,
but he is probably the first firmly documented designer of the high, slim heel. The word stiletto is derived from stiletto, which is a long thin blade, similar in profile
to the heel of the shoe. Its usage in footwear first appeared in print in the New Statesman magazine in 1959: “She came …forward, her walk made lopsided by the absence of
one heel of the stilettos”.

20151205_142212
High heel shoes were worn by men and women courtiers. The stiletto heel came with the advent of technology using a supporting metal shaft or stem embedded into the heel,
instead of wood or other, weaker materials that required a wide heel. This revival of the opulent heel style can be attributed to the designer Roger Vivier and such designs
became very popular in the 1950s.

 

As time went on, stiletto heels would become known more for their erotic nature than for their ability to make height. Stiletto heels are a common fetish item. As a fashion
item, their popularity has changed over time. After an initial wave of popularity in the 1950s, they reached their most refined shape in the early 1960s, when the toes of
the shoes which bore them became as slender and elongated as the stiletto heels themselves. As a result of the overall sharpness of outline, it was customary for women to
refer to the whole shoe as a “stiletto”, not just the heel, via synecdoche (pars pro toto). Although they officially faded from the scene after the Beatle era began, their
popularity continued at street level, and women stubbornly refused to give them up even after they could no longer readily find them in the mainstream shops. A version of
the stiletto heel was reintroduced in 1974 by Manolo Blahnik, who dubbed his “new” heel the “Needle”. Similar heels were stocked at the big Biba store in London, by Russell
& Bromley and by smaller boutiques. Old, unsold stocks of pointed-toe stilettos and contemporary efforts to replicate them (lacking the true stiletto heel because of changes
in the way heels were by then being mass-produced) were sold in street fashion markets and became popular with punks and with other fashion “tribes” of the late 1970s until
supplies of the inspirational original styles dwindled in the early 1980s. Subsequently, round-toe shoes with slightly thicker (sometimes cone-shaped) semi-stiletto heels,
often very high in an attempt to convey slenderness were frequently worn at the office with wide-shouldered power suits. The style survived through much of the 1980s but
almost completely disappeared during the 1990s, when professional and college-age women took to wearing shoes with thick, block heels. The slender stiletto heel staged a
major comeback after 2000 when young women adopted the style for dressing up office wear or adding a feminine touch to casual wear, like jeans.

 

Stiletto heels are particularly associated with the image of the femme fatale. They are often considered to be a seductive item of clothing, and often feature in
popular culture in this context.

IMG_5487
History
Medieval Europeans wore wooden-soled paten shoes, which were ancestors to contemporary high heels. Elizabeth Semmelhack, curator at Toronto’s Bata Shoe Museum,
traces the high heel to Persian horse riders in the Near East who used high heels for functionality, because they helped hold the rider’s foot in stirrups.
She states that this footwear is depicted on a 9th-century ceramic bowl from Persia.

 

It is sometimes suggested that raised heels were a response to the problem of the rider’s foot slipping forward in stirrups while riding.
The “rider’s heel”, approximately 1 1⁄2 inches (3.8 cm) high, appeared in Europe around 1600. The leading edge was canted forward to help grip the stirrup, and the trailing
edge was canted forward to prevent the elongated heel from catching on underbrush or rock while backing up, such as in on-foot combat. These features are evident today
in riding boots, notably cowboy boots.

Ancient Egypt

Early depictions of high heels could be seen on ancient Egyptian murals, dating back to 3500 BC. These murals would depict Egyptian nobilities wearing heels to set them
apart from the lower class, who would normally go barefoot. Heeled shoes were worn by both men and women, and most commonly for ceremonial purposes. However, high heels also
served a practical purpose for Egyptian butchers who wore them in order to walk over the bloodied bodies of animal carcasses. During Egyptian times, heels were leather
pieces that were held together by lacing to form the symbol of “Ankh”, signifying life.

Ancient Greece and Rome

Platform sandals called “kothorni” or “buskins” were shoes with high wooden cork soles worn during ancient Greek and Roman era. They were particularly popular among the
actors who would wear them to differentiate the social classes and importance of each character. In ancient Rome, where sex trade was legal, high heels were used to identify
those within the trade to potential clients and high heels became associated with prostitution.

71-n
Contemporary scene

Since the Second World War, high heels have fallen in and out of popular fashion trend several times, most notably in the late 1990s, when lower heels and even flats
predominated[citation needed]. Lower heels were preferred during the late 1960s and early 1970s as well, but higher heels returned in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The shape of the fashionable heel has also changed from block (1970s) to tapered (1990s), and stiletto (1950s, early 1960s, 1980s, and post-2000).

Today, high heels are typically worn, with heights varying from a kitten heel of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) to a stiletto heel (or spike heel) of 5 inches (13 cm) or more.
Extremely high-heeled shoes, such as those higher than 6 inches (15 cm), are normally worn only for aesthetic reasons and are not considered practical. Court shoes
are conservative styles and often used for work and formal occasions, while more adventurous styles are common for evening wear and dancing. High heels have seen
significant controversy in the medical field lately, with many podiatrists seeing patients whose severe foot problems have been caused almost exclusively by high-heel wear.

The wedge heel is informally another style of the heel, where the heel is in a wedge form and continues all the way to the toe of the shoe.

 

BW  Stilletos fbj

Negative effects

The case against wearing high heels is based almost exclusively on health and practicality reasons, including that they:
can cause foot and tendon pain;
increase the likelihood of sprains and fractures;
make calves look more rigid and sinewy;
can create foot deformities, including hammer toes and bunions;
can cause an unsteady gait;
can shorten the wearer’s stride.
can render the wearer unable to run;
can exacerbate lower back pain;
alter forces at the knee so as to predispose the wearer to degenerative changes in the knee joint;
can result after frequent wearing in a higher incidence of degenerative joint disease of the knees. This is because they cause a decrease in the normal rotation of the foot, which puts more rotation stress on the knee.
can cause damage to soft floors if they are thin or metal-tipped.
Dress and Stilletos On Full Fashion Nylons fbj

Nylon Feet fbj
Positive effects

 

The case for wearing high heels is based almost exclusively on aesthetic reasons, including that they:
change the angle of the foot with respect to the lower leg, which accentuates the appearance of calves;
change the wearer’s posture, requiring a more upright carriage and altering the gait in what is considered a seductive fashion;
make the wearer appear taller;
make the legs appear longer;
make the foot appear smaller;
make the toes appear shorter;
make the arches of the feet higher and better defined;
according to a single line of research, they may improve the muscle tone of some women’s pelvic floor, thus possibly reducing female incontinence,
although these results have been disputed.
offer practical benefits for people of short stature in terms of improving access and using items, e.g. sitting upright with feet on floor instead of suspended,
reaching items on shelves, etc.
Nylons off fbj
During the 16th century, European royalty, such as Catherine de Medici and Mary I of England, started wearing high-heeled shoes to make them look taller or larger than life.
By 1580, men also wore them, and a person with authority or wealth was often referred to as “well-heeled”.

In modern society, high-heeled shoes are a part of women’s fashion, perhaps more as a sexual prop. High heels force the body to tilt, emphasizing the buttocks and breasts.
They also emphasize the role of feet in sexuality, and the act of putting on stockings or high heels is often seen as an erotic act. This desire to look sexy and erotic
continues to drive women to wear high-heeled shoes, despite causing significant pain in the ball of the foot, or bunions or corns, or hammer toe. A survey conducted by the
American Podiatric Medical Association showed some 42% of women admitted that they would wear a shoe they liked even if it gave them discomfort.

 

 

 

Types of high heels

Types of heels found on high-heeled footwear include:
cone: a round heel that is broad where it meets the sole of the shoe and noticeably narrower at the point of contact with the ground
kitten: a short, slim heel with maximum height under 2 inches and diameter of no more than 0.4 inch at the point of contact with the ground
prism: three flat sides that form a triangle at the point of contact with the ground
puppy: thick square block heel approximately 2 inches in diameter and height
spool or louis: broad where it meets the sole and at the point of contact with the ground; noticeably narrower at the midpoint between the two
stiletto: a tall, slim heel with minimum height of 2 inches and diameter of no more than 0.4 inch at the point of contact with the ground
wedge: occupies the entire space under the arch and heel portions of the foot.
arch: minimum of 7″ and only worn by teens

 

Men and heels

The Vision of Saint Eustace, Pisanello, 1438–1442. Rider wearing high heels.
Elizabeth Semmelhack, curator for the Bata Shoe Museum, traces the high heel to male horse-riding warriors in the Middle East who used high heels for functionality,
because they help hold the rider’s foot in stirrups. She states that the earliest high heel she has seen is depicted on a 9th-century AD ceramic bowl from Persia.

Since the late 18th century, men’s shoes have featured lower heels than most women’s shoes. Some attribute it to Napoleon who disliked high heels; others to the
general trend of minimizing non-functional items in men’s clothing. Cowboy boots remain a notable exception, and they continue to be made with a taller riding heel.
The two-inch Cuban heel featured in many styles of men’s boot derives its heritage from certain Latino roots, most notably various forms of Spanish and Latin American dance,
including Flamenco, as most recently evidenced by Joaquín Cortés. Cuban heels were first widely popularized, however, by Beatle boots, as worn by the English rock group
The Beatles during their introduction to the United States. Some say this saw the re-introduction of higher-heeled footwear for men in the 1960s and 1970s
(in Saturday Night Fever, John Travolta’s character wears a Cuban heel in the opening sequence). The singer Prince is known to wear high heels, as well as Elton John.
Bands such as Mötley Crüe and Sigue Sigue Sputnik predominantly wore high heels during the 1980s. Current well-known male heel wearers include Prince, Justin Tranter,
lead singer of Semi Precious Weapons, and Bill Kaulitz, the lead singer of Tokio Hotel. Popular R&B singer Miguel was wearing his trademark Cuban heels during the “legdrop”
incident at the 2013 Billboard Music Awards.Winklepicker boots often feature a Cuban heel.

Accessories

The stiletto of certain kinds of high heels can damage some types of floors. Such damage can be prevented by heel protectors, also called covers, guards, or taps,
which fit over the stiletto tips to keep them from direct, marring contact with delicate surfaces, such as linoleum (rotogravure) or urethane-varnished wooden floors.
Heel protectors are widely used in ballroom dancing, as such dances are often held on wooden flooring. The bottom of most heels usually has a plastic or metal heel tip
that wears away with use and can be easily replaced. Dress heels (high-heeled shoes with elaborate decoration) are worn for formal occasions.

 

Other uses for specialized high heel protectors make it feasible to walk on grass or soft earth, but not mud, sand, and water, during outdoor events, removing the need to
have specialized carpeting or flooring on an outdoor or soft surface. Certain heel protectors also improve the balance of the shoe and reduce the strain that certain
high heeled or stiletto shoes can place on the foot.

Health effects
Foot and tendon problems

High-heeled shoes slant the foot forward and down while bending the toes up. The more the feet are forced into this position, the more it may cause the gastrocnemius muscle
(part of the calf muscle) to shorten. This may cause problems when the wearer chooses lower heels or flat-soled shoes. When the foot slants forward, a much greater weight
is transferred to the ball of the foot and the toes, increasing the likelihood of damage to the underlying soft tissue that supports the foot. In many shoes, style dictates
function, either compressing the toes or forcing them together, possibly resulting in blisters, corns, hammer toes, bunions (hallux valgus), Morton’s neuroma, plantar
fasciitis and many other medical conditions, most of which are permanent and require surgery to alleviate the pain. High heels, because they tip the foot forward,
put pressure on the lower back by making the rump push outwards, crushing the lower back vertebrae and contracting the muscles of the lower back.

 

If the wearer believes it is not possible to avoid high heels altogether, it is suggested that the wearer spend at least a third of the time they spend on their feet
in contour-supporting “flat” shoes (such as exercise sandals), or well-cushioned sneaker-type shoes, saving high heels for special occasions; or if it is a necessity in
their job, such as a lawyer, it is recommended that they limit the height of the heel that they wear, or, if they are in court, remain seated as much as possible to avoid
damage to the feet. It is also recommended to wear a belt if possible with heels, because the elevation of the foot and extension of the leg can cause pants to become looser
than wanted. In the winter time, one could also use seat warmers with heels to relax and loosen muscles all over the body.

One of the most critical problems of high-heeled shoe design involves a properly constructed toe-box. Improper construction here can cause the most damage to one’s foot.
Toe-boxes that are too narrow force the toes to be crammed too close together. Ensuring that room exists for the toes to assume a normal separation so that high-heel wear
remains an option rather than a debilitating practice is an important issue in improving the wear ability of high-heeled fashion shoes.

Wide heels do not necessarily offer more stability, and any raised heel with too much width, such as found in “blade-heeled” or “block-heeled” shoes, induces unhealthy
side-to-side torque to the ankles with every step, stressing them unnecessarily, while creating additional impact on the balls of the feet. Thus, the best design for a
high heel is one with a narrower width, where the heel is closer to the front, more solidly under the ankle, where the toe box provides room enough for the toes, and where
forward movement of the foot in the shoe is kept in check by material snug across the instep, rather than by the toes being rammed forward and jamming together in the
toe box or crushed into the front of the toe box.

Pelvic floor muscle tone

A 2008 study by Cerruto et al. reported results that suggest that wearing high heels may improve the muscle tone of a woman’s pelvic floor. The authors speculated that this
could have a beneficial effect on female stress urinary incontinence.

 

Feminist attitudes

The high heel has been a central battleground of sexual politics ever since the emergence of the women’s liberation movement of the 1970s. Many second-wave feminists
rejected what they regarded as constricting standards of female beauty, created for the subordination and objectifying of women and self-perpetuated by reproductive
competition and women’s own aesthetics.

The British-American journalist Hadley Freeman wrote, “For me, high heels are just fancy foot binding with a three-figure price tag”, although she supported the
freedom to choose what to wear and stated that “one person’s embrace of their sexuality is another person’s patriarchal oppression.”

 

 

Tall Stilletos fbj

Vintage Stockings Ep.28




IMG_20151016_002343

2015-10-12_06.48.06


tmjs 28 tn

tmjs 28 tn

“HowTo” A Story! TMJS ep25

HowTo-A Story…

Shop Amazon – Introducing Prime Pantry – Everyday Essentials in Everyday Sizes

Act 1 establishing the characters & the world they live in as well as the chalenges they will face.(the more bizarre the world the more explanation needed.Act 1 ends with the protagonist accepting the challenges presented in Act1. + 5W’S

1.who =A character is a person in a narrative work of arts (such as a novel, play, television series or film). Or a intertaining or capitivating individual

2.what = A Story is communication, The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in technologies evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 5000 years ago.

3.when & 4.where = time and geographic location in which a story takes place, and helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story. Setting has been referred to as story world or milieu to include a context (especially society) beyond the immediate surroundings of the story. Elements of setting may include culture, historical period, geography, and hour.

5.why = A Story is communication, The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in technologies evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 5000 years ago.

Act 2 referred to as “rising action”, typically depicts the protagonist’s attempt to resolve the problem initiated by the first turning point, only to find him- or herself in ever worsening situations. Part of the reason protagonists seem unable to resolve their problems is because they do not yet have the skills to deal with the forces of antagonism that confront them. They must not only learn new skills but arrive at a higher sense of awareness of who they are and what they are capable of, in order to deal with their predicament, which in turn changes who they are. This is referred to as character development or a character arc. This cannot be achieved alone and they are usually aided and abetted by mentors and co-protagonists.

Act 3 features the resolution of the story and its subplots. The climax is the scene or sequence in which the main tensions of the story are brought to their most intense point and the dramatic question answered, leaving the protagonist and other characters with a new sense of who they really are.

History of Story’s
In spoken language analysis an utterance is a smallest unit of speech. It is a continuous piece of speech beginning and ending with a clear pause. In the case of oral languages, it is generally but not always bounded by silence. Utterances do not exist in written language, only their representations do. It can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known systems of writing,distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. and came into English usage probably from Old French cunéiforme.
Wrihting is a large part of comunication. The early writing systems that emerged in Eurasia in the early 3rd millennium BC was not a sudden invention. Rather, it was a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems. These systems may be described as proto-writing. They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols to convey information yet were probably devoid of direct linguistic content. These systems emerged in the early Neolithic period, as early as the 7th millennium BC.

Proto-writing was The 1st. form of comunication after speaking.Tortoise shells were found in 24 Neolithic graves excavated at Jiahu, Henan province, northern China, with radiocarbon dates from the 7th millennium BC. According to some archaeologists, the symbols carved on the shells had similarities to the late 2nd millennium BC oracle bone script.The Vinča signs, found during excavations in Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia), an evolution of simple symbols beginning in the 7th millennium BC, gradually increasing in complexity throughout the 6th millennium and culminating in the Tărtăria tablets of ca. 5300 BC with their rows of symbols carefully aligned, evoking the impression of a “text”.The Dispilio Tablet of the late 6th millennium is similar. The hieroglyphic scripts of the Ancient Near East seamlessly emerge from such symbol systems, so that it is difficult to say at what point precisely writing emerges from proto-writing. Adding to this difficulty is the fact that very little is known about the symbols’ meanings.

Piktograf1

Join Amazon Prime – Watch Over 40,000 Movies & TV Shows Anytime – Start Free Trial Now

The transition from proto-writing to the earliest fully developed writing systems took place in the late 4th to early 3rd millennium BC in the Fertile Crescent. The Kish tablet, dated to 3500 BC, reflects the stage of “proto-cuneiform”, when what would become the cuneiform script of Sumer was still in the proto-writing stage. By the end of the 4th millennium BC, this symbol system had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. The transitional stage to a writing system proper takes place in the Jemdet Nasr period (31st to 30th centuries BC). A similar development took place in the genesis of the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Various scholars believe that Egyptian hieroglyphs “came into existence a little after Sumerian script, and invented under the influence of the latter although it is pointed out a development of writing in Egypt
the Bronze Age, the cultures of the Ancient Near East had fully developed writing systems, while the marginal territories affected by the Bronze Age, viz. Europe, India and China, remained in the stage of proto-writing.

Sumerian_26th_c_Adab
The Chinese script emerges from proto-writing in the Chinese Bronze Age, during about the 14th to 11th centuries BC (Oracle bone script), while symbol systems native to Europe and India are extinct and replaced by descendants of the Semitic abjad during the Iron Age.
Typical “Indus script” seal impression showing an “inscription” of five characters.
The so-called Indus script is a symbol system used during the 3rd millennium BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.
With the exception of the Aegean, the early writing systems of the Near East did not reach Bronze Age Europe. The earliest writing systems of Europe arise in the Iron Age, derived from the Phoenician alphabet.

779px-Caslon-schriftmusterblatt
The “Slavic runes” (7th/8th century) mentioned by a few medieval authors may have been such a system. The Quipu of the Incas (15th century), sometimes called “talking knots”, may have been of a similar nature. Another example is the system of pictographs invented by Uyaquk before the development of the Yugtun syllabary (ca. 1900).
Nsibidi is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria. While there remains no commonly accepted exact date of origin, most researchers agree that use of the symbols date back well before 500 CE. There are thousands of Nsibidi symbols which were used on anything from calabashes to tattoos and to wall designs. Nsibidi is used for the Ekoid and Igboid languages, and the Aro people are known to write Nsibidi messages on the bodies of their messengers.

Storytelling is the conveying of events in words, and images, often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation, and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters, and narrative point of view. Storytelling predates writing, with the earliest forms of storytelling usually oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to being part of religious ritual, rock art may have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient cultures. The Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral narrative, music, rock art, and dance, which bring understanding and meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of stories. People have used the carved trunks of living trees and ephemeral media to record stories in pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may also represent stories, with information about genealogy, affiliation, and social status.
With the advent of writing and the use of, portable media, stories were recorded, transcribed, and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo, ivory and other bones, pottery, clay tablets, stone, palm-leaf books, skins, bark cloth, paper, silk, canvas, and other textiles, recorded on film, and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world.

Eliments of a story
1 Plot is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story, as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, One is generally interested in how well this pattern of events accomplishes some artistic or emotional effect. A complicated plot is called an imbroglio, but even the simplest statements of plot may include multiple inferences, as in traditional ballads.In other words, a plot is the gist of a story, and composed of causal events, which means a series of sentences linked by “and so.” A plot highlights all the important points and the line of a story.
2 a character requires an analysis of its relations with all of the other characters in the work. The individual status of a character is defined through the network of oppositions (proairetic, pragmatic, linguistic, proxemic) that it forms with the other characters.The relation between characters and the action of the story shifts historically, often miming shifts in society and its ideas about human individuality, self-determination, and the social order.
3 A narrator is either a personal character or a non-personal voice or images created by the author to deliver information to the audience about the plot and/or other information. something that merely relates the story to the audience without being involved in the actual events. Some stories have multiple narrators to illustrate the story-lines of various characters at the same, similar, or different times, thus allowing a more complex, non-singular point of view.
4 medium or Media are the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data.It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized communication businesses such as: print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio,television or the internet), and/or publishing.

Types of storys
Fiction is the form of any narrative that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. Although the term fiction refers in particular to written stories such as novels and short stories, it may also refer to the theatre , film, television, poetry and song. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual or, at least, assumed factual events, descriptions, observations.
Non-fiction, is a narrative that strictly presents presumably real-life events, established facts, and true information. The authors of such accounts believe them to be truthful at the time of their composition or, at least, pose them to a convinced audience as historically or empirically true. Reporting the beliefs of others in a non-fiction format is not necessarily an endorsement of the ultimate veracity of those beliefs, it is simply saying it is true that people believe them Non-fiction can also be written about fiction, giving information about these other works. Non-fiction need not necessarily be written text, since pictures and film can also purport to present a factual account of a subject.
Traditional stories, or stories about traditions, differ from both fiction and nonfiction in that the importance of transmitting the story’s worldview is generally understood to transcend an immediate need to establish its categorization as imaginary or factual. In the academic circles of literature, religion, history, and anthropology, categories of traditional story are important terminology to identify and interpret stories more precisely. Some stories belong in multiple categories and some stories do not fit into any category.
A fairy tale typically features European folkloric fantasy characters, such as dwarves, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, mermaids, trolls, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables.
the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in “fairy tale ending” or “fairy tale romance” . Colloquially, a “fairy tale” or “fairy story” can also mean any farfetched story or tall tale; it is used especially of any story that not only is not true, but could not possibly be true. Legends are perceived as real; fairy tales may merge into legends, where the narrative is perceived both by teller and hearers as being grounded in historical truth. However, unlike legends and epics, they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places, people, and events; they take place once upon a time rather than in actual times.
Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales, stories, tall tales, and customs included in the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It also includes the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared.
Mythology can refer either to the collected myths of a group of people—their body of stories which they tell to explain nature, history, and customs—or to the study of such myths.As a collection of such stories, mythology is an important feature of every culture. Various origins for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of natural phenomena to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events, to explanations of existing ritual. Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and Japanese manga. A culture’s collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experience, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons.
A legend, “things to be read” is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants includes no happenings that are outside the realm of “possibility”, as that is defined by a highly flexible set of parameters, which may include miracles that are perceived as actually having happened within the specific tradition of indoctrination where the legend arises, and within which tradition it may be transformed over time, in order to keep it fresh and vital, and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted.
Fable is a literary genre. A fable is a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects or forces of nature which are anthropomorphized (given human qualities such as verbal communication), and that illustrates or leads to an interpretation of a moral lesson (a “moral”), which may at the end be added explicitly in a pithy maxim.

Write or Draw to start your creation …
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios.

A plot outline Points
•The teaser. This is a scene that pulls the reader in, preferably an action scene.
•Exposition/Background. Where is the setting? Who are the characters? This tells necessary information in order to follow along with the story.
•The conflict. Character(s) presented with a problem.
•Rising Action. The suspense grows, and the problems take the Ripple Effect into new problems, which, in turn, cause conflict for your character.
•Suspense. Right before the climactic scene. These are the events that lead up to the climax, which are crucial to make the story flow.
•Climax. Here is the scene where all of the problems blow up in one event, where your character is in the worst trouble. This is usually only a single event.
•Winding Down. Your character recovers from the incident in the climax, and things smooth out slightly. There are still problems but your character has recovered.
•Falling Action. All of the problems are untied, things settle in, and your character feels back to normal but usually impacted from the events that occurred.
•Resolution. A scene like an epilogue, that tells what your character is going through or will be going through in the future, and how they feel.
•End teaser (for series writers). Just like the teaser, but makes the reader want to read the next novel.
Fill in each plot point, and from there you are good.


New Fun of “The Digital Age”is you can just shoot and form the story in edditing or use Documentry style documentation to present numerious mediums usefull in art or education.

A Vintage Hat for the Holidays


follow @TheMaryJaneStyle on Twitter &Tumbler
images-62 images-64 A disgraceful act to venture out of the house without a hat or even gloves. One record tells of a young lady venturing out to post a letter without her hat and gloves and being severely reprimanded for not being appropriately dressed. The post box was situated a few yards from her front garden gate. TMJS 24 Vintage Hat



Etiquette and formality have played their part in hat wearing.  At the turn of the 20th century in 1900, both men and women changed their hats dependant on their activity, but for many ladies of some social standing it would be several times a day.

   For hats, bearing in mind that hair was often pinned up, the popular style of hat wear were bonnets and fascinators, something you could pin on to your victory roll. Berets were also popular during the war.

    The snood – made popular by Vivien Leigh, would also create a nice 1940s war look effect to finish off your hairstyle. Just wearing a simple black beret with rolled hair can really give you that 1940s look.

 

1941_hairstyles_small

1942hats_hair_small

1944hats_small

1945_hats_small


1943hats_small

1941_hats_2_small

Gangs_all_here_trailer 1946tailleurbicorns_small 1946tailorpot_small 1946tailleurhatsveils_small

Plumassiers

Running parallel to these hat making arts were feather workshops or more correctly workshops called plumassiers where feathers were dyed and made into arrangements from boas to aigrettes to tufts and sprays for both the worlds of fashion and interiors.  Plumes have always been a status symbol and sign of economic stability.

Fortunes were paid by rich individuals for exotic feathered hats.  Gorgeous feathered hats could command as much as £100 in the early Edwardian era.  The Edwardians were masters in the art of excess and the flamboyant hats of the era are a clear example of this.

At one point whole stuffed birds were used to decorate hats, but as the new more enlightened century emerged, protests were voiced.  In America the Audubon society expressed concern and in England the RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds) campaigned for ecological understanding.

Eventually plumage pleas were heard and Queen Alexandra forbad the wearing of rare osprey feathers at court so that the osprey bird was not plundered for feathers.  For a few years magazines quietly ignored making reference to feathers on hats as women continued to wear them.  But soon the use of other rare bird feathers was banned and thereafter only farmed feathers could be used and only from specific birds.


For A Gentleman

Fun Hat 1940’s

A fashion report in Los Angeles Times from 1895 called the use of mendiant the “newest trimming” for hats, and noted that hats were “tipped far over the eyes”. The Chicago Tribune reported on fruit ribbons, along with feathers, flowers, and frills, as trim for Easter hats. A report on artificial fruit used on hats was in a 1918 edition of the New York Times. Fruit and vegetable trim on “gay hats” featured in the first millinery show of the season at New York’s Saks Fifth Avenue in 1941, and overshadowed flowers. Mendicant is a traditional French confection usually prepared during the Christmas season, and composed of a chocolate disk studded with nuts and dried fruits representing the four mendicant or monastic orders of the Dominicans, Augustinians, Franciscans and Carmelites, where the color of the nuts and dried fruits is used refer to the color of monastic robes. Tradition dictates that raisins are used for the Dominicans, hazelnut for the Augustins, dried fig for Franciscans and almond for Carmelite. Lil Picard, a millinery designer for the custom-made department of Bloomingdale’s, sought inspiration from nature for her hats and while on vacation “listening to the birds, gazing through the lacy outlines of foliage and watching the ripening fruits, she dreamed of trimmings.”

Perfect, BackSeams…”HowTo”

IMG_20140927_045303

Seamed: Stockings manufactured in the old Full-Fashioned manner with a seam running up the back of the leg. In the past they were manufactured by cutting the fabric and then sewing it together. Today stockings are generally fully knitted and a fake or mock seam is added up the back for a particular fashion look. Some brands also produce seamed hold-ups.
images-21

Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; and those products are also known generically as hose. The term is also used for all types of knitted fabric, and its thickness and weight is defined in terms of denier or opacity. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items.

The first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, where Romans are said to have used leather or cloth in forms of strips to cover their lower body parts. Even the Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs.

images-22
Before the 1920s, women’s stockings, if worn, were worn for warmth. In the 1920s, as hemlines of women’s dresses rose, women began to wear stockings to cover the exposed legs. These stockings were sheer, first made of silk or rayon (then known as “artificial silk”), and after 1940 of nylon.
images-32

images-33

images-34

images-35

Paint-on Hosiery During the War Years

A back “seam” drawn with an eyebrow pencil topped off the resourceful fashion effect
So it’s Saturday night in 1941, and you want to wear stockings with your cocktail dress, but the new wonder material nylon has been rationed for the war effort and has disappeared from department store shelves. What do you do in such times of patriotic privation? You get resourceful, and cover your legs with a layer of nude-colored makeup, and line the back of each leg with a trompe l’oeil seam.

Last week, in the first post from the Stocking Series, we heard about the huge reception of nylon hosiery. On May 16, 1940, officially called “Nylon Day,” four million pairs of nylons landed in stores and sold out within two days! But only a year later, the revolutionary product became scarce when the World War II economy directed all nylon into manufacturing parachutes, rope and netting.
Having trouble with your seam? No problem! This contraption, made from a screwdriver handle, bicycle leg clip and an ordinary eyebrow pencil would do the trick!

images-36

images-38
images-42


images-52

 

The Mary Jane Style HowTo-Ep#18 Might seem silly Topic is june13,1934


YouTube Channel please subscribe !!!

The Best preparation of The Future is knowledge of The Past

Topic is June13,1934 Production Code followed by any filmmaker who would want Theatrical distribution = censorship Is there a separation of church and state… what was artistic freedom from 1934-1968… At the end of the video I added a little funny impression of not all but, a sample of possible working environment very different from Todays
The last decade or more there has been minimum censorship at least here on the internet I choose this topic due to questions or concerns on how is the internet going to be censored or monitored… this video is simply the reading of The …
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968.
It is also popularly known as the Hays Code, after Hollywood’s chief censor of the time, Will H. Hays. The Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), adopted the code in 1930, began enforcing it in 1934, and abandoned it in 1968, in favor of the subsequent MPAA film rating system.
The Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States. The office enforcing it was popularly called the Hays Office in reference to Hays, inaccurately so after 1934 when Joseph Breen took over from Hays, creating the Breen Office, which was far more rigid in censoring films than Hays had been.
Where Did this idea come from?  In 1922, after several risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder Will H. Hays to rehabilitate Hollywood’s image. Hollywood in the 1920s was expected to be somewhat corrupt, and many felt the movie industry had always been morally questionable. Political pressure was increasing, with legislators in 37 states introducing almost one hundred movie censorship bills in 1921. Hays was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), where he “defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, and negotiated treaties to cease hostilities.”
MPPDA2b
The move mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in the wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal; The New York Times even called Hays the “screen Landis”.
In 1924, Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed “The Formula” which the studios were advised to heed, and asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning on making. The Supreme Court had already decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, and while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before—such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry (NAMPI) in 1916—little had come of the efforts.

New York became the first state to take advantage of the Supreme Court’s decision by instituting a censorship board in 1921. Virginia followed suit the following year, with eight individual states having a board by the advent of sound film, But many of these were ineffectual. By the 1920s, the New York stage—a frequent source of subsequent screen material—had topless shows, performances filled with curse words, mature subject matters, and sexually suggestive dialogue. Early in the sound system conversion process, it became apparent that what might be acceptable in New York would not be so in Kansas.

In 1927, Hays suggested to studio executives that they form a committee to discuss film censorship. Irving G. Thalberg of Metro Goldwyn Mayer (MGM), Sol Wetzel of Fox, and E. H. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the “Don’ts and Be careful”, which was based on items that were challenged by local censor boards. This list consisted of eleven subjects best avoided and twenty-six to be handled very carefully. The list was approved by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and Hays created the Studio Relations Committee (SRC) to oversee its implementation. However, there was still no way to enforce tenets. The controversy surrounding film standards came to a head in 1929

In 1929, the lay Catholic Martin Quigley (editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald) and the Jesuit priest Father Daniel A. Lord created a code of standards and submitted it to the studios. The Lord was particularly concerned with the effects of sound film on children, whom he considered especially susceptible to their allure. In February 1930, several studio heads—including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)—met with Lord and Quigley. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention. It was the responsibility of the SRC (headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, a former American Red Cross Executive Secretary) to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required. On March 31, the MPPDA agreed that it would abide by the Code.

imagesBHVPW0M5 IMG_5487
imagesUGO886ED
The code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of “general principles” which mostly concerned morality.
The second was a set of “particular applications” which was an exacting list of items which could not be depicted. Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or on the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned, but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Depiction of miscegenation (i.e. marital or sexual relations between different races) was forbidden. It also stated that the notion of an “adults-only policy” would be a dubious, ineffective strategy which would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that “maturer minds may easily understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm.” If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed “the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime.”

The production code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen but also to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage—which were forbidden from being portrayed as attractive or beautiful—were to be presented in a way that would not arouse passion or make them seem permissible.
All criminal action had to be punished, and neither the crime nor the criminal could elicit sympathy from the audience, or the audience must at least be aware that such behavior is wrong, usually through “compensating moral value”.
Authority figures had to be treated with respect, and the clergy could not be portrayed as comic characters or villains. Under some circumstances, politicians, police officers, and judges could be villains, as long as it was clear that those individuals portrayed as villains were the exceptions to the rule.

The entire document was written with Catholic undertones and stated that art must be handled carefully because it could be “morally evil in its effects” and because its “deep moral significance” was unquestionable. It was initially decided to keep the Catholic influence on the Code secret. A recurring theme was “that throughout, the audience feels sure that evil is wrong and good is right”. The Code also contained an addendum commonly referred to as the Advertising Code which regulated advertising copy and imagery.
The first film the office reviewed, The Blue Angel, which was passed by Joy with no revisions, was considered indecent by a California censor. Although there were several instances where Joy negotiated cuts from films and there were indeed definite—albeit loose—constraints, a significant amount of lurid material made it to the screen. Joy had to review 500 films a year with a small staff and little power. He was more willing to work with the studios, and his creative writing skills led to his hiring at Fox. On the other hand, Wingate struggled to keep up with the flood of scripts coming in, to the point where Warner Bro.’s head of production Darryl Zanuck wrote him a letter imploring him to pick up the pace.
In 1930, the Hays office did not have the authority to order studios to remove material from a film, and instead worked by reasoning and sometimes pleading with them. Complicating matters, the appeals process ultimately put the responsibility for making the final decision in the hands of the studios.

One factor in ignoring the code was the fact that some found such censorship prudish, due to the libertine social attitudes of the 1920s and early 1930s. This was a period in which the Victorian era was sometimes ridiculed as being naïve and backward. When the Code was announced, liberal periodical The Nation attacked it.

The publication stated that if crime were never to be presented in a sympathetic light, then taken literally that would mean that “law” and “justice” would become one and the same. Therefore, events such as the Boston Tea Party could not be portrayed. If clergy must always be presented in a positive way, then hypocrisy could not be dealt with either. The Outlook agreed, and, unlike Variety, The Outlook predicted from the beginning that the Code would be difficult to enforce. The Great Depression of the 1930s led many studios to seek income by any way possible. Since films containing racy and violent content resulted in high ticket sales, it seemed reasonable to continue producing such films. Soon, the flouting of the code became an open secret. In 1931, the Hollywood Reporter mocked the code and Variety followed suit in 1933. In the same year as the Variety article, a noted screenwriter stated that “the Hays moral code is not even a joke any more; it’s just a memory.”

On June 13, 1934, an amendment to the Code was adopted which established the Production Code Administration (PCA) and required all films released on or after July 1, 1934, to obtain a certificate of approval before being released. The PCA had two offices—one in Hollywood and the other in New York City. The first film to receive an MPPDA seal of approval was The World Moves On. For more than thirty years, virtually all motion pictures produced in the United States adhered to the code. The Production Code was not created or enforced by federal, state, or city government; the Hollywood studios adopted the code in large part in the hopes of avoiding government censorship, preferring self-regulation to government regulation. The enforcement of the Production Code led to the dissolution of many local censorship boards.

 

y untitled sec 1934

Hollywood worked within the confines of the Production Code until the late 1950s and the movies were faced with very serious competitive threats. The first threat came from a new technology, television, which did not require Americans to leave their house to watch moving pictures. Hollywood needed to offer the public something it could not get on television, which itself was under an even more restrictive censorship code.

In addition to the threat of television, there was also increasing competition from foreign films, such as
Vittorio De Sica’s Bicycle Thieves (1948),
the Swedish film One Summer of Happiness (1951),
and Ingmar Bergman’s Summer with Monika (1953).
Vertical integration in the movie industry had been found to violate anti-trust laws, and studios had been forced to give up ownership of theatres by the Supreme Court in United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. (1948). The studios had no way to keep foreign films out, and foreign films were not bound by the Production Code. (For De Sica’s film, there was a censorship controversy when the MPAA demanded a scene where the lead characters talk to the prostitutes of a brothel be removed, regardless of the fact that there was no sexual or provocative activity.) Some British films—such as
Victim (1961),
A Taste of Honey (1961),
and The Leather Boys (1963)
—challenged traditional gender roles and openly confronted the prejudices against homosexuals, all in clear violation of the Hollywood Production Code. In keeping with the changes in society, sexual content that would have previously been banned by the Code was being retained. The anti-trust rulings also helped pave the way for independent art houses that would show films created by people such as Andy Warhol who worked outside the studio system.

In 1952, in the case of Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously overruled its 1915 decision
(Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio) and held that motion pictures were entitled to First Amendment protection, so that the New York State Board of Regents could not ban
“The Miracle”, a short film that was one half of L’Amore (1948),
an anthology film directed by Roberto Rossellini. Film distributor Joseph Burstyn released the film in the U.S. in 1950, and the case became known as the “Miracle Decision” due to its connection to Rossellini’s film. That reduced the threat of government regulation, which had formerly been cited as justification for the Production Code, and the PCA’s powers over the Hollywood industry were greatly reduced.

By the 1950s, American culture also began to change. A boycott by the National Legion of Decency no longer guaranteed a film’s commercial failure, and several aspects of the code had slowly lost their taboo. In 1956, areas of the code were rewritten to accept subjects such as miscegenation, adultery, and prostitution. For example, the remake of a pre-Code film dealing with prostitution, Anna Christie, was cancelled by MGM twice, in 1940 and in 1946, as the character of Anna was not allowed to be portrayed as a prostitute. By 1962, such subject matter was acceptable and the original film was given a seal of approval.

By the late 1950s, increasingly explicit films began to appear, such as
Anatomy of a Murder (1959),
Suddenly Last Summer (1959),
and The Dark at the Top of the Stairs (1961).
The MPAA reluctantly granted the seal of approval for these films, although not until certain cuts were made. Due to its themes, Billy Wilder’s
Some Like It Hot (1959)
was not granted a certificate of approval, but it still became a box office smash, and, as a result, it further weakened the authority of the Code. At the forefront of contesting the Code was director Otto Preminger, whose films violated the Code repeatedly in the 1950s.
His 1953 film The Moon Is Blue — about a young woman who tries to play two suitors off against each other by claiming that she plans to keep her virginity until marriage — was released without a certificate of approval. He later made
The Man with the Golden Arm (1955),
which portrayed the prohibited subject of drug abuse, and
Anatomy of a Murder (1959), which dealt with murder and rape.
Like Some Like It Hot, Preminger’s films were direct assaults on the authority of the Production Code, and their success hastened its abandonment. In the early 1960s, films began to deal with adult subjects and sexual matters that had not been seen in Hollywood films since the early 1930s. The MPAA reluctantly granted the seal of approval for these films, although again not until certain cuts were made.

In 1964, the Holocaust film The Pawnbroker, directed by Sidney Lumet and starring Rod Steiger, was initially rejected because of two scenes in which the actresses Linda Geiser and Thelma Oliver fully expose their breasts, as well as due to a sex scene between Oliver and Jaime Sánchez described as “unacceptably sex suggestive and lustful”. Despite the rejection, the film’s producers arranged for Allied Artists to release the film without the Production Code seal, with the New York censors licensing the film without the cuts demanded by Code administrators. The producers appealed the rejection to the Motion Picture Association of America.
On a 6–3 vote, the MPAA granted the film an exception conditional on “reduction in the length of the scenes which the Production Code Administration found unprovable.” The requested reductions of nudity were minimal; the outcome was viewed in the media as a victory for the film’s producers.
The Pawnbroker
was the first film featuring bare breasts to receive Production Code approval. The exception to the code was granted as a “special and unique case” and was described by The New York Times at the time as “an unprecedented move that will not, however, set a precedent”. However, in Pictures at a Revolution, Mark Harris’ 2008 study of films during that era, Harris wrote that the MPAA approval was “the first of a series of injuries to the Production Code that would prove fatal within three years.”

In 1966, Warner Bros. released Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, the first film to feature the “Suggested for Mature Audiences” (SMA) label. When Jack Valenti became President of the MPAA in 1966, he was faced with censoring the film’s explicit language. Valenti negotiated a compromise: the word “screw” was removed, but other language remained, including the phrase “hump the hostess”. The film received Production Code approval despite the previously prohibited language.

That same year, the British-produced, American-financed film Blowup was denied Production Code approval. MGM released it anyway, the first instance of an MPAA member company distributing a film that did not have an approval certificate. That same year, the original and lengthy code was replaced by a list of eleven points. The points outlined that the boundaries of the new code would be current community standards and good taste. In addition, any film containing content deemed to be suitable for older audiences would feature the label SMA in its advertising. With the creation of this new label, the MPAA unofficially began classifying films.
By the late 1960s, enforcement had become impossible and the Production Code was abandoned entirely. The MPAA began working on a rating system, under which film restrictions would lessen. The MPAA film rating system went into effect on November 1, 1968, with four ratings: G for general audiences, M for mature content, R for restricted (under 17 not admitted without an adult), and X for sexually explicit content. By the end of 1968, Geoffrey Shurlock stepped down from his post.[50][51] In 1969, the Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow), directed by Vilgot Sjöman, was initially banned in the U.S. for its frank depiction of sexuality; however, this was overturned by the Supreme Court.

In 1970, because of confusion over the meaning of “mature audiences”, the M rating was changed to GP, and then in 1972 to the current PG, for “parental guidance suggested”. In 1984, in response to public complaints regarding the severity of horror elements in PG-rated titles such as Gremlins and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, the PG-13 rating was created as a middle tier between PG and R. In 1990, the X rating was replaced by NC-17 (under 17 not admitted), partly because of the stigma associated with the X rating, and partly because the X rating was not trademarked by the MPAA; pornographic bookstores and theaters were using their own X and XXX symbols to market products.


tmjs e 18