Ep#30 HowTo Apply FullFashion Nylons Blind Folded TMJS


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TheMaryJaneStyle How To Walk in The Highest of HighHeels Ep#29

TheMaryJaneStyle How To Walk in The Highest of High Heels Ep#29

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High-heeled footwear is footwear that raises the heel of the wearer’s foot significantly higher than the toes. When both the heel and the toes are raised equal amounts,
as in a platform shoe, it is technically not considered to be a high heel; however, there are also high-heeled platform shoes. High heels tend to give the aesthetic illusion
of longer, more slender legs. High heels come in a wide variety of styles, and the heels are found in many different shapes, including stiletto, pump (court shoe), block,
tapered, blade, and wedge.

 

According to high-fashion shoe websites like Jimmy Choo and Gucci, a “low heel” is considered less than 2.5 inches (6.4 centimeters), while heels between 2.5 and 3.5 inches
(6.4 and 8.9 cm) are considered “mid heels”, and anything over that is considered a “high heel”. The apparel industry would appear to take a simpler view; the term
“high heels” covers heels ranging from 2 to 5 inches (5.1 to 12.7 cm) or more. Extremely high-heeled shoes, such as those exceeding 6 inches (15 cm), strictly speaking,
are no longer considered apparel but rather something akin to “jewelry for the feet”. They are worn for display or the enjoyment of the wearer.

Although high heels are now usually worn only by girls and women, there are shoe designs worn by both genders that have elevated heels, including cowboy boots
and Cuban heels. In previous ages, men also wore high heels.

In the ninth century, Persian horseback warriors wore an extended heel made up for keeping feet from sliding out of stirrups. This also kept riders still when they needed
to stand up and shoot arrows.

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Stiletto heel

A shoe with a stiletto heel
A stiletto heel is a long, thin, high heel found on some boots and shoes, usually for women.

It is named after the stiletto dagger, the phrase being first recorded in the early 1930s. Stiletto heels may vary in length from 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) to 25 cm
(10 inches) or more if a platform sole is used, and are sometimes defined as having a diameter at the ground of less than 1 cm (slightly less than half an inch).
Stiletto-style heels 5 cm (2.0 in) or shorter are called kitten heels.

Not all high slim heels merit the description stiletto. The extremely slender original Italian-style stiletto heels of the late 1950s and very early 1960s were no more
than 5 mm (0.20 in) in diameter for much of their length, although the heel sometimes flared out a little at the top-piece (tip). After their demise in the mid-late 1960s,
such slender heels were difficult to find until recently due to changes in the way heels were mass-produced. A real stiletto heel has a stem of solid steel or alloy.
The more usual method of mass-producing high shoe heels, i.e. molded plastic with an internal metal tube for reinforcement, does not achieve the true stiletto shape.

A pair of shoes with 12 cm stiletto heels
Relatively thin high heels were certainly around in the late 19th century, as numerous fetish drawings attest. Firm photographic evidence exists in the form of photographs
of Parisian singer Mistinguett from the 1940s. These shoes were designed by Andre Perugia, who began designing shoes in 1906. It seems unlikely that he invented the stiletto,
but he is probably the first firmly documented designer of the high, slim heel. The word stiletto is derived from stiletto, which is a long thin blade, similar in profile
to the heel of the shoe. Its usage in footwear first appeared in print in the New Statesman magazine in 1959: “She came …forward, her walk made lopsided by the absence of
one heel of the stilettos”.

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High heel shoes were worn by men and women courtiers. The stiletto heel came with the advent of technology using a supporting metal shaft or stem embedded into the heel,
instead of wood or other, weaker materials that required a wide heel. This revival of the opulent heel style can be attributed to the designer Roger Vivier and such designs
became very popular in the 1950s.

 

As time went on, stiletto heels would become known more for their erotic nature than for their ability to make height. Stiletto heels are a common fetish item. As a fashion
item, their popularity has changed over time. After an initial wave of popularity in the 1950s, they reached their most refined shape in the early 1960s, when the toes of
the shoes which bore them became as slender and elongated as the stiletto heels themselves. As a result of the overall sharpness of outline, it was customary for women to
refer to the whole shoe as a “stiletto”, not just the heel, via synecdoche (pars pro toto). Although they officially faded from the scene after the Beatle era began, their
popularity continued at street level, and women stubbornly refused to give them up even after they could no longer readily find them in the mainstream shops. A version of
the stiletto heel was reintroduced in 1974 by Manolo Blahnik, who dubbed his “new” heel the “Needle”. Similar heels were stocked at the big Biba store in London, by Russell
& Bromley and by smaller boutiques. Old, unsold stocks of pointed-toe stilettos and contemporary efforts to replicate them (lacking the true stiletto heel because of changes
in the way heels were by then being mass-produced) were sold in street fashion markets and became popular with punks and with other fashion “tribes” of the late 1970s until
supplies of the inspirational original styles dwindled in the early 1980s. Subsequently, round-toe shoes with slightly thicker (sometimes cone-shaped) semi-stiletto heels,
often very high in an attempt to convey slenderness were frequently worn at the office with wide-shouldered power suits. The style survived through much of the 1980s but
almost completely disappeared during the 1990s, when professional and college-age women took to wearing shoes with thick, block heels. The slender stiletto heel staged a
major comeback after 2000 when young women adopted the style for dressing up office wear or adding a feminine touch to casual wear, like jeans.

 

Stiletto heels are particularly associated with the image of the femme fatale. They are often considered to be a seductive item of clothing, and often feature in
popular culture in this context.

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History
Medieval Europeans wore wooden-soled paten shoes, which were ancestors to contemporary high heels. Elizabeth Semmelhack, curator at Toronto’s Bata Shoe Museum,
traces the high heel to Persian horse riders in the Near East who used high heels for functionality, because they helped hold the rider’s foot in stirrups.
She states that this footwear is depicted on a 9th-century ceramic bowl from Persia.

 

It is sometimes suggested that raised heels were a response to the problem of the rider’s foot slipping forward in stirrups while riding.
The “rider’s heel”, approximately 1 1⁄2 inches (3.8 cm) high, appeared in Europe around 1600. The leading edge was canted forward to help grip the stirrup, and the trailing
edge was canted forward to prevent the elongated heel from catching on underbrush or rock while backing up, such as in on-foot combat. These features are evident today
in riding boots, notably cowboy boots.

Ancient Egypt

Early depictions of high heels could be seen on ancient Egyptian murals, dating back to 3500 BC. These murals would depict Egyptian nobilities wearing heels to set them
apart from the lower class, who would normally go barefoot. Heeled shoes were worn by both men and women, and most commonly for ceremonial purposes. However, high heels also
served a practical purpose for Egyptian butchers who wore them in order to walk over the bloodied bodies of animal carcasses. During Egyptian times, heels were leather
pieces that were held together by lacing to form the symbol of “Ankh”, signifying life.

Ancient Greece and Rome

Platform sandals called “kothorni” or “buskins” were shoes with high wooden cork soles worn during ancient Greek and Roman era. They were particularly popular among the
actors who would wear them to differentiate the social classes and importance of each character. In ancient Rome, where sex trade was legal, high heels were used to identify
those within the trade to potential clients and high heels became associated with prostitution.

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Contemporary scene

Since the Second World War, high heels have fallen in and out of popular fashion trend several times, most notably in the late 1990s, when lower heels and even flats
predominated[citation needed]. Lower heels were preferred during the late 1960s and early 1970s as well, but higher heels returned in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The shape of the fashionable heel has also changed from block (1970s) to tapered (1990s), and stiletto (1950s, early 1960s, 1980s, and post-2000).

Today, high heels are typically worn, with heights varying from a kitten heel of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) to a stiletto heel (or spike heel) of 5 inches (13 cm) or more.
Extremely high-heeled shoes, such as those higher than 6 inches (15 cm), are normally worn only for aesthetic reasons and are not considered practical. Court shoes
are conservative styles and often used for work and formal occasions, while more adventurous styles are common for evening wear and dancing. High heels have seen
significant controversy in the medical field lately, with many podiatrists seeing patients whose severe foot problems have been caused almost exclusively by high-heel wear.

The wedge heel is informally another style of the heel, where the heel is in a wedge form and continues all the way to the toe of the shoe.

 

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Negative effects

The case against wearing high heels is based almost exclusively on health and practicality reasons, including that they:
can cause foot and tendon pain;
increase the likelihood of sprains and fractures;
make calves look more rigid and sinewy;
can create foot deformities, including hammer toes and bunions;
can cause an unsteady gait;
can shorten the wearer’s stride.
can render the wearer unable to run;
can exacerbate lower back pain;
alter forces at the knee so as to predispose the wearer to degenerative changes in the knee joint;
can result after frequent wearing in a higher incidence of degenerative joint disease of the knees. This is because they cause a decrease in the normal rotation of the foot, which puts more rotation stress on the knee.
can cause damage to soft floors if they are thin or metal-tipped.
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Positive effects

 

The case for wearing high heels is based almost exclusively on aesthetic reasons, including that they:
change the angle of the foot with respect to the lower leg, which accentuates the appearance of calves;
change the wearer’s posture, requiring a more upright carriage and altering the gait in what is considered a seductive fashion;
make the wearer appear taller;
make the legs appear longer;
make the foot appear smaller;
make the toes appear shorter;
make the arches of the feet higher and better defined;
according to a single line of research, they may improve the muscle tone of some women’s pelvic floor, thus possibly reducing female incontinence,
although these results have been disputed.
offer practical benefits for people of short stature in terms of improving access and using items, e.g. sitting upright with feet on floor instead of suspended,
reaching items on shelves, etc.
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During the 16th century, European royalty, such as Catherine de Medici and Mary I of England, started wearing high-heeled shoes to make them look taller or larger than life.
By 1580, men also wore them, and a person with authority or wealth was often referred to as “well-heeled”.

In modern society, high-heeled shoes are a part of women’s fashion, perhaps more as a sexual prop. High heels force the body to tilt, emphasizing the buttocks and breasts.
They also emphasize the role of feet in sexuality, and the act of putting on stockings or high heels is often seen as an erotic act. This desire to look sexy and erotic
continues to drive women to wear high-heeled shoes, despite causing significant pain in the ball of the foot, or bunions or corns, or hammer toe. A survey conducted by the
American Podiatric Medical Association showed some 42% of women admitted that they would wear a shoe they liked even if it gave them discomfort.

 

 

 

Types of high heels

Types of heels found on high-heeled footwear include:
cone: a round heel that is broad where it meets the sole of the shoe and noticeably narrower at the point of contact with the ground
kitten: a short, slim heel with maximum height under 2 inches and diameter of no more than 0.4 inch at the point of contact with the ground
prism: three flat sides that form a triangle at the point of contact with the ground
puppy: thick square block heel approximately 2 inches in diameter and height
spool or louis: broad where it meets the sole and at the point of contact with the ground; noticeably narrower at the midpoint between the two
stiletto: a tall, slim heel with minimum height of 2 inches and diameter of no more than 0.4 inch at the point of contact with the ground
wedge: occupies the entire space under the arch and heel portions of the foot.
arch: minimum of 7″ and only worn by teens

 

Men and heels

The Vision of Saint Eustace, Pisanello, 1438–1442. Rider wearing high heels.
Elizabeth Semmelhack, curator for the Bata Shoe Museum, traces the high heel to male horse-riding warriors in the Middle East who used high heels for functionality,
because they help hold the rider’s foot in stirrups. She states that the earliest high heel she has seen is depicted on a 9th-century AD ceramic bowl from Persia.

Since the late 18th century, men’s shoes have featured lower heels than most women’s shoes. Some attribute it to Napoleon who disliked high heels; others to the
general trend of minimizing non-functional items in men’s clothing. Cowboy boots remain a notable exception, and they continue to be made with a taller riding heel.
The two-inch Cuban heel featured in many styles of men’s boot derives its heritage from certain Latino roots, most notably various forms of Spanish and Latin American dance,
including Flamenco, as most recently evidenced by Joaquín Cortés. Cuban heels were first widely popularized, however, by Beatle boots, as worn by the English rock group
The Beatles during their introduction to the United States. Some say this saw the re-introduction of higher-heeled footwear for men in the 1960s and 1970s
(in Saturday Night Fever, John Travolta’s character wears a Cuban heel in the opening sequence). The singer Prince is known to wear high heels, as well as Elton John.
Bands such as Mötley Crüe and Sigue Sigue Sputnik predominantly wore high heels during the 1980s. Current well-known male heel wearers include Prince, Justin Tranter,
lead singer of Semi Precious Weapons, and Bill Kaulitz, the lead singer of Tokio Hotel. Popular R&B singer Miguel was wearing his trademark Cuban heels during the “legdrop”
incident at the 2013 Billboard Music Awards.Winklepicker boots often feature a Cuban heel.

Accessories

The stiletto of certain kinds of high heels can damage some types of floors. Such damage can be prevented by heel protectors, also called covers, guards, or taps,
which fit over the stiletto tips to keep them from direct, marring contact with delicate surfaces, such as linoleum (rotogravure) or urethane-varnished wooden floors.
Heel protectors are widely used in ballroom dancing, as such dances are often held on wooden flooring. The bottom of most heels usually has a plastic or metal heel tip
that wears away with use and can be easily replaced. Dress heels (high-heeled shoes with elaborate decoration) are worn for formal occasions.

 

Other uses for specialized high heel protectors make it feasible to walk on grass or soft earth, but not mud, sand, and water, during outdoor events, removing the need to
have specialized carpeting or flooring on an outdoor or soft surface. Certain heel protectors also improve the balance of the shoe and reduce the strain that certain
high heeled or stiletto shoes can place on the foot.

Health effects
Foot and tendon problems

High-heeled shoes slant the foot forward and down while bending the toes up. The more the feet are forced into this position, the more it may cause the gastrocnemius muscle
(part of the calf muscle) to shorten. This may cause problems when the wearer chooses lower heels or flat-soled shoes. When the foot slants forward, a much greater weight
is transferred to the ball of the foot and the toes, increasing the likelihood of damage to the underlying soft tissue that supports the foot. In many shoes, style dictates
function, either compressing the toes or forcing them together, possibly resulting in blisters, corns, hammer toes, bunions (hallux valgus), Morton’s neuroma, plantar
fasciitis and many other medical conditions, most of which are permanent and require surgery to alleviate the pain. High heels, because they tip the foot forward,
put pressure on the lower back by making the rump push outwards, crushing the lower back vertebrae and contracting the muscles of the lower back.

 

If the wearer believes it is not possible to avoid high heels altogether, it is suggested that the wearer spend at least a third of the time they spend on their feet
in contour-supporting “flat” shoes (such as exercise sandals), or well-cushioned sneaker-type shoes, saving high heels for special occasions; or if it is a necessity in
their job, such as a lawyer, it is recommended that they limit the height of the heel that they wear, or, if they are in court, remain seated as much as possible to avoid
damage to the feet. It is also recommended to wear a belt if possible with heels, because the elevation of the foot and extension of the leg can cause pants to become looser
than wanted. In the winter time, one could also use seat warmers with heels to relax and loosen muscles all over the body.

One of the most critical problems of high-heeled shoe design involves a properly constructed toe-box. Improper construction here can cause the most damage to one’s foot.
Toe-boxes that are too narrow force the toes to be crammed too close together. Ensuring that room exists for the toes to assume a normal separation so that high-heel wear
remains an option rather than a debilitating practice is an important issue in improving the wear ability of high-heeled fashion shoes.

Wide heels do not necessarily offer more stability, and any raised heel with too much width, such as found in “blade-heeled” or “block-heeled” shoes, induces unhealthy
side-to-side torque to the ankles with every step, stressing them unnecessarily, while creating additional impact on the balls of the feet. Thus, the best design for a
high heel is one with a narrower width, where the heel is closer to the front, more solidly under the ankle, where the toe box provides room enough for the toes, and where
forward movement of the foot in the shoe is kept in check by material snug across the instep, rather than by the toes being rammed forward and jamming together in the
toe box or crushed into the front of the toe box.

Pelvic floor muscle tone

A 2008 study by Cerruto et al. reported results that suggest that wearing high heels may improve the muscle tone of a woman’s pelvic floor. The authors speculated that this
could have a beneficial effect on female stress urinary incontinence.

 

Feminist attitudes

The high heel has been a central battleground of sexual politics ever since the emergence of the women’s liberation movement of the 1970s. Many second-wave feminists
rejected what they regarded as constricting standards of female beauty, created for the subordination and objectifying of women and self-perpetuated by reproductive
competition and women’s own aesthetics.

The British-American journalist Hadley Freeman wrote, “For me, high heels are just fancy foot binding with a three-figure price tag”, although she supported the
freedom to choose what to wear and stated that “one person’s embrace of their sexuality is another person’s patriarchal oppression.”

 

 

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“HowTo” A Story! TMJS ep25

HowTo-A Story…

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Act 1 establishing the characters & the world they live in as well as the chalenges they will face.(the more bizarre the world the more explanation needed.Act 1 ends with the protagonist accepting the challenges presented in Act1. + 5W’S

1.who =A character is a person in a narrative work of arts (such as a novel, play, television series or film). Or a intertaining or capitivating individual

2.what = A Story is communication, The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in technologies evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 5000 years ago.

3.when & 4.where = time and geographic location in which a story takes place, and helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story. Setting has been referred to as story world or milieu to include a context (especially society) beyond the immediate surroundings of the story. Elements of setting may include culture, historical period, geography, and hour.

5.why = A Story is communication, The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in technologies evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing about 5000 years ago.

Act 2 referred to as “rising action”, typically depicts the protagonist’s attempt to resolve the problem initiated by the first turning point, only to find him- or herself in ever worsening situations. Part of the reason protagonists seem unable to resolve their problems is because they do not yet have the skills to deal with the forces of antagonism that confront them. They must not only learn new skills but arrive at a higher sense of awareness of who they are and what they are capable of, in order to deal with their predicament, which in turn changes who they are. This is referred to as character development or a character arc. This cannot be achieved alone and they are usually aided and abetted by mentors and co-protagonists.

Act 3 features the resolution of the story and its subplots. The climax is the scene or sequence in which the main tensions of the story are brought to their most intense point and the dramatic question answered, leaving the protagonist and other characters with a new sense of who they really are.

History of Story’s
In spoken language analysis an utterance is a smallest unit of speech. It is a continuous piece of speech beginning and ending with a clear pause. In the case of oral languages, it is generally but not always bounded by silence. Utterances do not exist in written language, only their representations do. It can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known systems of writing,distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. and came into English usage probably from Old French cunéiforme.
Wrihting is a large part of comunication. The early writing systems that emerged in Eurasia in the early 3rd millennium BC was not a sudden invention. Rather, it was a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems. These systems may be described as proto-writing. They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols to convey information yet were probably devoid of direct linguistic content. These systems emerged in the early Neolithic period, as early as the 7th millennium BC.

Proto-writing was The 1st. form of comunication after speaking.Tortoise shells were found in 24 Neolithic graves excavated at Jiahu, Henan province, northern China, with radiocarbon dates from the 7th millennium BC. According to some archaeologists, the symbols carved on the shells had similarities to the late 2nd millennium BC oracle bone script.The Vinča signs, found during excavations in Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia), an evolution of simple symbols beginning in the 7th millennium BC, gradually increasing in complexity throughout the 6th millennium and culminating in the Tărtăria tablets of ca. 5300 BC with their rows of symbols carefully aligned, evoking the impression of a “text”.The Dispilio Tablet of the late 6th millennium is similar. The hieroglyphic scripts of the Ancient Near East seamlessly emerge from such symbol systems, so that it is difficult to say at what point precisely writing emerges from proto-writing. Adding to this difficulty is the fact that very little is known about the symbols’ meanings.

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The transition from proto-writing to the earliest fully developed writing systems took place in the late 4th to early 3rd millennium BC in the Fertile Crescent. The Kish tablet, dated to 3500 BC, reflects the stage of “proto-cuneiform”, when what would become the cuneiform script of Sumer was still in the proto-writing stage. By the end of the 4th millennium BC, this symbol system had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. The transitional stage to a writing system proper takes place in the Jemdet Nasr period (31st to 30th centuries BC). A similar development took place in the genesis of the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Various scholars believe that Egyptian hieroglyphs “came into existence a little after Sumerian script, and invented under the influence of the latter although it is pointed out a development of writing in Egypt
the Bronze Age, the cultures of the Ancient Near East had fully developed writing systems, while the marginal territories affected by the Bronze Age, viz. Europe, India and China, remained in the stage of proto-writing.

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The Chinese script emerges from proto-writing in the Chinese Bronze Age, during about the 14th to 11th centuries BC (Oracle bone script), while symbol systems native to Europe and India are extinct and replaced by descendants of the Semitic abjad during the Iron Age.
Typical “Indus script” seal impression showing an “inscription” of five characters.
The so-called Indus script is a symbol system used during the 3rd millennium BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.
With the exception of the Aegean, the early writing systems of the Near East did not reach Bronze Age Europe. The earliest writing systems of Europe arise in the Iron Age, derived from the Phoenician alphabet.

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The “Slavic runes” (7th/8th century) mentioned by a few medieval authors may have been such a system. The Quipu of the Incas (15th century), sometimes called “talking knots”, may have been of a similar nature. Another example is the system of pictographs invented by Uyaquk before the development of the Yugtun syllabary (ca. 1900).
Nsibidi is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria. While there remains no commonly accepted exact date of origin, most researchers agree that use of the symbols date back well before 500 CE. There are thousands of Nsibidi symbols which were used on anything from calabashes to tattoos and to wall designs. Nsibidi is used for the Ekoid and Igboid languages, and the Aro people are known to write Nsibidi messages on the bodies of their messengers.

Storytelling is the conveying of events in words, and images, often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation, and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters, and narrative point of view. Storytelling predates writing, with the earliest forms of storytelling usually oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to being part of religious ritual, rock art may have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient cultures. The Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral narrative, music, rock art, and dance, which bring understanding and meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of stories. People have used the carved trunks of living trees and ephemeral media to record stories in pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may also represent stories, with information about genealogy, affiliation, and social status.
With the advent of writing and the use of, portable media, stories were recorded, transcribed, and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo, ivory and other bones, pottery, clay tablets, stone, palm-leaf books, skins, bark cloth, paper, silk, canvas, and other textiles, recorded on film, and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world.

Eliments of a story
1 Plot is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story, as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, One is generally interested in how well this pattern of events accomplishes some artistic or emotional effect. A complicated plot is called an imbroglio, but even the simplest statements of plot may include multiple inferences, as in traditional ballads.In other words, a plot is the gist of a story, and composed of causal events, which means a series of sentences linked by “and so.” A plot highlights all the important points and the line of a story.
2 a character requires an analysis of its relations with all of the other characters in the work. The individual status of a character is defined through the network of oppositions (proairetic, pragmatic, linguistic, proxemic) that it forms with the other characters.The relation between characters and the action of the story shifts historically, often miming shifts in society and its ideas about human individuality, self-determination, and the social order.
3 A narrator is either a personal character or a non-personal voice or images created by the author to deliver information to the audience about the plot and/or other information. something that merely relates the story to the audience without being involved in the actual events. Some stories have multiple narrators to illustrate the story-lines of various characters at the same, similar, or different times, thus allowing a more complex, non-singular point of view.
4 medium or Media are the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data.It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized communication businesses such as: print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio,television or the internet), and/or publishing.

Types of storys
Fiction is the form of any narrative that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not real, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. Although the term fiction refers in particular to written stories such as novels and short stories, it may also refer to the theatre , film, television, poetry and song. Fiction contrasts with non-fiction, which deals exclusively with factual or, at least, assumed factual events, descriptions, observations.
Non-fiction, is a narrative that strictly presents presumably real-life events, established facts, and true information. The authors of such accounts believe them to be truthful at the time of their composition or, at least, pose them to a convinced audience as historically or empirically true. Reporting the beliefs of others in a non-fiction format is not necessarily an endorsement of the ultimate veracity of those beliefs, it is simply saying it is true that people believe them Non-fiction can also be written about fiction, giving information about these other works. Non-fiction need not necessarily be written text, since pictures and film can also purport to present a factual account of a subject.
Traditional stories, or stories about traditions, differ from both fiction and nonfiction in that the importance of transmitting the story’s worldview is generally understood to transcend an immediate need to establish its categorization as imaginary or factual. In the academic circles of literature, religion, history, and anthropology, categories of traditional story are important terminology to identify and interpret stories more precisely. Some stories belong in multiple categories and some stories do not fit into any category.
A fairy tale typically features European folkloric fantasy characters, such as dwarves, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, mermaids, trolls, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables.
the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in “fairy tale ending” or “fairy tale romance” . Colloquially, a “fairy tale” or “fairy story” can also mean any farfetched story or tall tale; it is used especially of any story that not only is not true, but could not possibly be true. Legends are perceived as real; fairy tales may merge into legends, where the narrative is perceived both by teller and hearers as being grounded in historical truth. However, unlike legends and epics, they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places, people, and events; they take place once upon a time rather than in actual times.
Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales, stories, tall tales, and customs included in the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It also includes the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared.
Mythology can refer either to the collected myths of a group of people—their body of stories which they tell to explain nature, history, and customs—or to the study of such myths.As a collection of such stories, mythology is an important feature of every culture. Various origins for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of natural phenomena to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events, to explanations of existing ritual. Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and Japanese manga. A culture’s collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experience, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons.
A legend, “things to be read” is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. Legend, for its active and passive participants includes no happenings that are outside the realm of “possibility”, as that is defined by a highly flexible set of parameters, which may include miracles that are perceived as actually having happened within the specific tradition of indoctrination where the legend arises, and within which tradition it may be transformed over time, in order to keep it fresh and vital, and realistic. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being entirely believed by the participants, but also never being resolutely doubted.
Fable is a literary genre. A fable is a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects or forces of nature which are anthropomorphized (given human qualities such as verbal communication), and that illustrates or leads to an interpretation of a moral lesson (a “moral”), which may at the end be added explicitly in a pithy maxim.

Write or Draw to start your creation …
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence. The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at Walt Disney Productions during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios.

A plot outline Points
•The teaser. This is a scene that pulls the reader in, preferably an action scene.
•Exposition/Background. Where is the setting? Who are the characters? This tells necessary information in order to follow along with the story.
•The conflict. Character(s) presented with a problem.
•Rising Action. The suspense grows, and the problems take the Ripple Effect into new problems, which, in turn, cause conflict for your character.
•Suspense. Right before the climactic scene. These are the events that lead up to the climax, which are crucial to make the story flow.
•Climax. Here is the scene where all of the problems blow up in one event, where your character is in the worst trouble. This is usually only a single event.
•Winding Down. Your character recovers from the incident in the climax, and things smooth out slightly. There are still problems but your character has recovered.
•Falling Action. All of the problems are untied, things settle in, and your character feels back to normal but usually impacted from the events that occurred.
•Resolution. A scene like an epilogue, that tells what your character is going through or will be going through in the future, and how they feel.
•End teaser (for series writers). Just like the teaser, but makes the reader want to read the next novel.
Fill in each plot point, and from there you are good.


New Fun of “The Digital Age”is you can just shoot and form the story in edditing or use Documentry style documentation to present numerious mediums usefull in art or education.

A Vintage Hat for the Holidays


follow @TheMaryJaneStyle on Twitter &Tumbler
images-62 images-64 A disgraceful act to venture out of the house without a hat or even gloves. One record tells of a young lady venturing out to post a letter without her hat and gloves and being severely reprimanded for not being appropriately dressed. The post box was situated a few yards from her front garden gate. TMJS 24 Vintage Hat



Etiquette and formality have played their part in hat wearing.  At the turn of the 20th century in 1900, both men and women changed their hats dependant on their activity, but for many ladies of some social standing it would be several times a day.

   For hats, bearing in mind that hair was often pinned up, the popular style of hat wear were bonnets and fascinators, something you could pin on to your victory roll. Berets were also popular during the war.

    The snood – made popular by Vivien Leigh, would also create a nice 1940s war look effect to finish off your hairstyle. Just wearing a simple black beret with rolled hair can really give you that 1940s look.

 

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Plumassiers

Running parallel to these hat making arts were feather workshops or more correctly workshops called plumassiers where feathers were dyed and made into arrangements from boas to aigrettes to tufts and sprays for both the worlds of fashion and interiors.  Plumes have always been a status symbol and sign of economic stability.

Fortunes were paid by rich individuals for exotic feathered hats.  Gorgeous feathered hats could command as much as £100 in the early Edwardian era.  The Edwardians were masters in the art of excess and the flamboyant hats of the era are a clear example of this.

At one point whole stuffed birds were used to decorate hats, but as the new more enlightened century emerged, protests were voiced.  In America the Audubon society expressed concern and in England the RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds) campaigned for ecological understanding.

Eventually plumage pleas were heard and Queen Alexandra forbad the wearing of rare osprey feathers at court so that the osprey bird was not plundered for feathers.  For a few years magazines quietly ignored making reference to feathers on hats as women continued to wear them.  But soon the use of other rare bird feathers was banned and thereafter only farmed feathers could be used and only from specific birds.


For A Gentleman

Fun Hat 1940’s

A fashion report in Los Angeles Times from 1895 called the use of mendiant the “newest trimming” for hats, and noted that hats were “tipped far over the eyes”. The Chicago Tribune reported on fruit ribbons, along with feathers, flowers, and frills, as trim for Easter hats. A report on artificial fruit used on hats was in a 1918 edition of the New York Times. Fruit and vegetable trim on “gay hats” featured in the first millinery show of the season at New York’s Saks Fifth Avenue in 1941, and overshadowed flowers. Mendicant is a traditional French confection usually prepared during the Christmas season, and composed of a chocolate disk studded with nuts and dried fruits representing the four mendicant or monastic orders of the Dominicans, Augustinians, Franciscans and Carmelites, where the color of the nuts and dried fruits is used refer to the color of monastic robes. Tradition dictates that raisins are used for the Dominicans, hazelnut for the Augustins, dried fig for Franciscans and almond for Carmelite. Lil Picard, a millinery designer for the custom-made department of Bloomingdale’s, sought inspiration from nature for her hats and while on vacation “listening to the birds, gazing through the lacy outlines of foliage and watching the ripening fruits, she dreamed of trimmings.”

Perfect, BackSeams…”HowTo”

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Seamed: Stockings manufactured in the old Full-Fashioned manner with a seam running up the back of the leg. In the past they were manufactured by cutting the fabric and then sewing it together. Today stockings are generally fully knitted and a fake or mock seam is added up the back for a particular fashion look. Some brands also produce seamed hold-ups.
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Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; and those products are also known generically as hose. The term is also used for all types of knitted fabric, and its thickness and weight is defined in terms of denier or opacity. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items.

The first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, where Romans are said to have used leather or cloth in forms of strips to cover their lower body parts. Even the Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs.

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Before the 1920s, women’s stockings, if worn, were worn for warmth. In the 1920s, as hemlines of women’s dresses rose, women began to wear stockings to cover the exposed legs. These stockings were sheer, first made of silk or rayon (then known as “artificial silk”), and after 1940 of nylon.
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Paint-on Hosiery During the War Years

A back “seam” drawn with an eyebrow pencil topped off the resourceful fashion effect
So it’s Saturday night in 1941, and you want to wear stockings with your cocktail dress, but the new wonder material nylon has been rationed for the war effort and has disappeared from department store shelves. What do you do in such times of patriotic privation? You get resourceful, and cover your legs with a layer of nude-colored makeup, and line the back of each leg with a trompe l’oeil seam.

Last week, in the first post from the Stocking Series, we heard about the huge reception of nylon hosiery. On May 16, 1940, officially called “Nylon Day,” four million pairs of nylons landed in stores and sold out within two days! But only a year later, the revolutionary product became scarce when the World War II economy directed all nylon into manufacturing parachutes, rope and netting.
Having trouble with your seam? No problem! This contraption, made from a screwdriver handle, bicycle leg clip and an ordinary eyebrow pencil would do the trick!

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HOW TO PIZZA MY NEW INVENTION Ep#21

pizza 1
this is me making the pizza dough my mommy made (she was against frozen&fast food)
so anytime I wanted id grab a ball of dough and add sauce(I skipped yucky) cheese and occasionally peperoni then bake …
I invented this recipe …on the grounds one day I daydreamed my version of the perfect pizza and here it is …
(I do recommend yeast I forgot it plus honey or sugar 1tea spoon)


Healthy Pizza is possible just know your ingredients and choose the best…
my pizza wasn’t vegan probably not gluten free but I did use healthy fresh ingredients here is recipe for the healthiest
vegan pizza :

Easy Buffalo Mozzarella
1 cup plain, unsweetened soy yogurt
1 cup raw cashews, soaked in water for 3 – 8 hours and drained
1 cup water, divided
1 1/2 teaspoons sea salt
3 tablespoons tapioca flour
1 tablespoon agar powder
Combine the yogurt, cashews, a half cup of the water, and salt in a blender and process until emulsified. Transfer to a container, cover loosely, and set aside for 12 to 24 hours until slightly tangy. Whisk in the tapioca flour.
Combine the agar and remaining half cup of water in a small saucepan. Whisk together. Cover with a lid and bring to a boil. Simmer for 3 to 4 minutes. Pour in the yogurt mixture and mix well with a whisk. Continue cooking over medium heat, stirring with a wooden spoon, until the mixture is smooth, glossy, and stretchy.
Prepare a large bowl of ice water. Using an ice cream scooper, drop balls of the cheese into the ice bath. Let sit for 20 to 30 minutes until firm.

Vegan Pepperoni
Note: if you want a milder pepperoni, cut back on the pepper and pepper flakes.
- 1/2 cup of white kidney beans, rinsed and drained
- 1 cup cold water
- 1 tbsp olive oil
- 1 tsp liquid smoke
- 1 tsp HP sauce, or BBQ sauce
- 1 tbsp paprika
- 1/4 tsp cayenne pepper
- 1 tsp salt
- 1 tbsp sugar
- 1 tsp whole anise seed
- 1 tsp red peppercorns
- 1 tsp green peppercorns
- 1 tsp crushed red pepper flakes
- 1 1/4 cups vital wheat gluten
METHOD
Get your water on it way to boiling in your steamer
1. Finely mash the beans with a fork. Add water, oil, liquid smoke, HP or BBQ sauce, paprika, cayenne, salt and sugar and mix well.
2. Roughly grind anise seed, peppercorns, and red pepper flakes with a mortar and pestle. Add into mixture. Add in wheat gluten and mix well with a fork.
3. Divide dough into three equal portions. Shape each into a tube and wrap like a tootsie roll in heavy duty aluminum foil. Make sure to wrap it tightly by twisting the ends. Heavy duty foil is needed to keep the pepperoni from bursting out of the wrapping when cooking.
4. Steam for 45 mins. Cool and slice.

really healthy pizza dough:
5-Ingredient Quinoa Pizza Crust (Vegan, Gluten-Free)
Prep time 8 hours Cook time 30 mins Total time 8 hours 30 mins
Ingredients
¾ c. quinoa, rinsed and drained
¼ c. water
½ t. sea salt
1 t. baking powder
1 T. oil (I’ve used both coconut and olive with great results. Be sure the coconut oil is melted if you choose to use it.)
Instructions
1.Rinse the quinoa VERY WELL.
2.Place the rinsed quinoa in a bowl and cover it with water (about one inch above where the quinoa sits).
3.Let the quinoa soak overnight (at least eight hours).
4.Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.
5.Drain and RINSE the quinoa VERY WELL again.
6.Place the drained and rinsed quinoa into a food processor along with the water, salt, and baking powder.
7.Process the mix for about two minutes until it is smooth in consistency.
8.Line an 8- or 9-inch cake pan with parchment paper. (I just place the cake pan on top of the parchment paper, draw an outline of it, cut it out, and place it into the cake pan.)
9.Pour the oil into the pan atop the parchment paper.
10.Pour the batter into the cake pan atop the oil, smoothing it out evenly.
11.Bake the crust for 15 minutes.
12.Carefully flip the crust over, and bake it for another five minutes.
13.Top the pizza as desired.
14.Bake the pizza for another 5-10 minutes until your toppings have cooked through.


…evidence contrary to my claim
‘pizza’ first appeared “in a Latin text from the southern Italian town of Gaeta in 997 AD
The Ancient Greek word πικτή (pikte), “fermented pastry”, which in Latin became “picta”, and Late Latin pitta > pizza.
The Ancient Greek word πίσσα (pissa, Attic πίττα, pitta), “pitch”or pḗtea, “bran” (pētítēs, “bran bread”)
Latin verb pìnsere (“to press”) and from the Greek pitta (derived from ancient Greek pēktos, πηκτός, meaning “solid” or “clotted”).
The ancient Greeks covered their bread with oils, herbs and cheese.
In Byzantine Greek, the word was spelled πίτα, pita, or πίττα, pitta, meaning pie.
The word has also spread to Romanian as pită,
Turkish as pide, and Bulgarian, Bosnian, Croatian, Macedonian and Serbian as pita,
Albanian as pite and Modern Hebrew pittāh.
The Romans developed placenta, a sheet of dough topped with cheese and honey and flavored with bay leaves.
The Latin word pinsa, the past participle of the verb “pinsere” which means to pound or to crush and may refer to the flattening out of the dough.
The Latin word picea which describes the blackening of bread in the oven or the black ash that gathers at the bottom of the oven.
The Italian word pizzicare meaning “to pluck” and refers to pizza being “plucked” quickly from the oven (pizzicare was derived from an older Italian word pizzo meaning “point”)
The Old High German word bizzo or pizzo meaning “mouthful” (related to the English words “bit” and “bite”) and was brought to Italy in the middle of the 6th century AD by the invading Lombards



Foods similar to pizza have been made since the end of the stone age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history.
Similar to flat breads in other parts of the world include the Indian Paratha , the Central and South Asian Naan and Roti , the Sardinian Carasau, Spianata, Guttiau, Pistoccu and Finnish Rieska.
Also worth note is that throughout Europe there are many similar pies based on the idea of covering flat pastry with cheese, meat, vegetables and seasoning such as the Alsatian Flammkuchen, German Zwiebelkuchen, and French Quiche.


In 16th century Naples a Galette flatbread was referred to as a pizza. Known as the dish for poor people, it was sold in the street and was not considered a kitchen recipe for a long time.
The innovation that led to flat bread pizza was the use of tomato as a topping.
For some time after the tomato was brought to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century,
it was believed by many Europeans to be poisonous (as are some other fruits of the nightshade family).
However, by the late 18th century, it was common for the poor of the area around Naples to add tomato to their yeast-based flat bread,
and so the pizza began.
The dish gained in popularity, and soon pizza became a tourist attraction as visitors to Naples ventured into the poorer areas of the city to try the local specialty.
In 1843, Alexandre Dumas, père described the diversity of pizza toppings.
An often recounted story holds that on 11 June 1889, to honour the Queen consort of Italy, Margherita of Savoy,
the Neapolitan pizzamaker Raffaele Esposito created the “Pizza Margherita”, a pizza garnished with tomatoes, mozzarella, and basil, to represent the national colours of Italy


Pizza is now a type of bread and tomato dish, often served with cheese. However, until the late nineteenth or early twentieth century,
the dish was sweet, not savory, and earlier versions which were savory more resembled the flat breads now known as schiacciata.
Pellegrino Artusi’s classic early twentieth century cookbook, La Scienza in cucina e l’Arte di mangiar bene gives three recipes for pizza, all of which are sweet.
However, by 1927, Ada Boni’s collection of regional cooking includes a recipe using tomatoes and mozzarella.

Pizza first made its appearance in the United States with the arrival of Italian immigrants in the late 19th century and was very popular among large Italian populations in New York City, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Saint Louis .
In the late 19th century, pizza was introduced by peddlers who walked up and down the streets with a metal washtub of pizzas on their heads, selling their pizzas at two cents a slice.
It was not long until small cafes and groceries began offering pizzas to their Italian-American communities.
The first printed reference to “pizza” served in the US is a
1904 article in the Boston Journal.” Giovanni and Gennero Bruno came to America from Naples Italy in 1903 to introduce the Neapolitan Pizza.”
Vincent (Jimmy) Bruno (Giovanni’s son) went on to open the first Pizzeria in “The Loop” in Chicago at 421 S. Wabash Ave,
the Yacht Club. Gennaro Lombardi opened a grocery store in 1897 which was later established as the “said” first pizzeria in America in 1905 with New York’s
issuance of the mercantile license. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero, began making pizza for the store to sell that same year.
The price for a pizza was five cents but, since many people could not afford the cost of a whole pie, they would instead say how much they could pay and they were given a slice corresponding to the amount offered.
In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi’s to open his own pizzeria on Coney Island called Totonno’s.
While the original Lombardi’s closed its doors in 1984, it was reopened in 1994 just down the street and is run by Lombardi’s grandson.
Pizza was brought to the Trenton area of New Jersey with Joe’s Tomato Pies opening in 1910, followed soon by Papa’s Tomato Pies in 1912.
In 1936, De Lorenzo’s Tomato Pies was opened. While Joe’s Tomato Pies has closed, both Papa’s and Delorenzo’s have been run by the same families since their openings and remain among the most popular pizzas in the area.
Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Connecticut, was another early pizzeria which opened in 1925 (after the owner served pies from local carts and bakeries for 20–25 years)
and is famous for its New Haven style Clam Pie. Frank Pepe’s nephew Sal Consiglio opened a competing store, Sally’s Apizza, on the other end of the block, in 1938.
Both establishments are still run by descendants of the original family. When Sal died, over 2,000 people attended his wake, and the New York Times ran a half-page memoriam.
The D’Amore family introduced pizza to Los Angeles in 1939.
Before the 1940s, pizza consumption was limited mostly to Italian immigrants and their descendants. The international breakthrough came after World War II.
Allied troops occupying Italy, weary of their rations, were constantly on the lookout for good food.
They discovered the pizzeria and local bakers were hard-pressed to satisfy the demand from the soldiers.
The American troops involved in the Italian campaign took their appreciation for the dish back home,
touted by “veterans ranging from the lowliest private to Dwight D. Eisenhower.”
Two entrepreneurs, Ike Sewell and Ric Riccardo, invented Chicago-style deep-dish pizza, in 1943.
They opened their own restaurant on the corner of Wabash and Ohio, they wanted to invent pizza nobody’s ever heard of.
Chain restaurants sprang up with pizza’s rising popularity. Leading early pizza chains were Shakey’s Pizza, founded in 1954 in Sacramento, California,
Pizza Hut, founded in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas, and
Josey’s Pizza founded in Newnan, Georgia in 1943.
Later entrant restaurant chains to the dine-in pizza market were Bertucci’s, Happy Joe’s, Monical’s Pizza, California Pizza Kitchen, Godfather’s Pizza, and Round Table Pizza.
On Super Bowl Sunday, Americans will eat an estimated 15 million pizzas.
When Pizza Hut introduced a pie with mozzarella cheese filling inside the crust in 1995, it touted the product as an industry “revolution.”
It was a bold assertion with which cheese maker Anthony Mongiello and his family immediately took issue. The Brooklyn native claimed to have created the stuffed crust
a decade earlier when he was 18 years old and, with his relatives, held a 1987 patent to prove it.
Mongiello is not the only one to claim the invention. New Jersey pizza maker Anthony Sambogna says he started making stuffed crusts in the 1960s under the name Pizza Zune. Sambogna sought credit from the chain,
not money, and received a letter from then-Chief Executive Officer Allan Huston stating: “Pizza Hut believes that you were the first person to make a pizza with a cheese-filled crust,” reported The Record newspaper in 1996.

Cooking

In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source,
an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants,
a wood- or coal-fired brick oven.
On deck ovens, the pizza can be slid into the oven on a long paddle, called a peel, and baked directly on the hot bricks or baked on a screen
When made at home, it can be baked on a pizza stone in a regular oven to reproduce the effect of a brick oven.
Another option is grilled pizza, in which the crust is baked directly on a barbecue grill.
Greek pizza, like Chicago-style pizza, is baked in a pan rather than directly on the bricks of the pizza oven.
home Preparation:
Pre-heat oven to 425 deg To prepare pizza dough, stir whole wheat flour; lightly spoon into a measuring cup and level flour.
In large mixing bowl, combine whole wheat flour, yeast and salt. Blend in water, oil and honey or sugar. Stir by hand vigorously until all ingredients are well mixed;
about 3 minutes. Cover with plastic wrap and let rise to desired size.
Place dough in greased 15 x 10 x 1-inch jelly-roll pan or 12 to 14-inch pizza pan. Press dough to cover bottom of pan and up sides to form a rim.

Crust
Ingredients:
•2 cups whole wheat flour
•1 package active dry yeast or instant yeast
•3/4 tsp salt
•1 cup hot water
•1 tbsp vegetable oil,or extra virgin olive oil
•1 tbsp honey or sugar


Traditional pizza dough tossing
The bottom of the pizza, called the “crust”, may vary widely according to style—thin as in a typical hand-tossed pizza, screen, thin, or Roman pizza,
or thick as in a typical pan pizza or deep like a Chicago-style pizza. It is traditionally plain, but may also be seasoned with garlic or herbs, or stuffed with cheese.
Whichever restaurant chosen, there are typically a few options of crust to chose from. The outer edge of the pizza is sometimes referred to as the cornicione.
Often, the pizza crust contains sugar to help with the yeast rising as well as the browning of the dough.

Cheese
Pizza cheese

The original pizza used only mozzarella, the highest quality ones the buffalo mozzarella variant, produced in the surroundings of Naples.
Other kinds of cheese may be used for creative alternative recipes (provolone, pecorino romano, ricotta, scamorza and many others),
including processed cheeses for mass-market pizzas manufactured to produce desirable qualities like browning, melting, stretchiness and fat and moisture content.
Many studies and experiments have analyzed the impact of vegetable oil, manufacturing and culture processes, denatured whey proteins and other changes
to creating the ideal and economical pizza cheese.
In 1997 it was estimated that annual production of pizza cheese was 2 billion pounds in the U.S. and 200 million pounds in Europe.

Toppings
used on pizzas, including, but not limited to:
Anchovies
Ham
Mushrooms
Olives
Onions
Chili peppers
Pepperoni
Peppers
Seafood
Sun-dried tomato
Tomatoes
Vegetables
Feta cheese
Spinach


Other types of Lazio-style pizza include:
Pizza romana: tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil
Pizza viennese: tomato, mozzarella, German sausage, oregano, oil
Pizza capricciosa: mozzarella, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, cooked ham, olives, oil
Pizza quattro formaggi: tomatoes, and the cheeses mozzarella, stracchino, fontina and gorgonzola. Sometimes ricotta is swapped for one of the latter three.
Pizza bianca : In Rome, the term pizza bianca refers to a type of bread topped with olive oil, salt and, occasionally herbs, such as rosemary sprigs.
It is also a Roman style to add figs to the pizza, the result being known as pizza e fichi.
Pizza alla casalinga: (“Grandma pizza”) consists of a thin layer of dough which is stretched into an oiled, square “Sicilian” pan,
topped sparingly with shredded mozzarella, crushed uncooked canned tomatoes, chopped garlic andolive oil, and baked until the top bubbles and the bottom is crisp

Traditional Sicilian pizza is often thick crusted and rectangular,
It is often topped with onions, anchovies, tomatoes, herbs, and strong cheese such as Caciocavallo and Toma.
Other versions do not include cheese. The Sicilian methods of making pizza are linked to local culture and country traditions,[5] so there are differences in preparing pizza even among the Sicilian regions of Palermo, Catania, Siracusa and Messina.

The Sfincione originated in the province of Palermo. Unlike the more familiar Neapolitan pizza, it is typically rectangular, with more dough, sauce and cheese.
An authentic recipe often calls for herbs, onion, tomato sauce, strong cheese, and anchovies. The sauce is sometimes placed on top of the toppings to prevent it from soaking into the thick dough.
In the province of Siracusa, especially in Solarino and Sortino, the Pizzòlu is a kind of round stuffed pizza.
In the province of Catania the traditional Scacciata is made in two different ways:
a first layer made of dough covered, within the city, by a local cheese (Tuma) and anchovies or,
by potatoes, sausages, broccoli, and tomato sauce.
In both cases a second layer of dough brushed with eggs covers everything.
Also in the region of Catania, in Zafferana Etnea and in Viagrande a typical pizza siciliana is a fried calzone stuffed with cheese and anchovies.
In the province of Messina, the traditional Piduni is a kind of calzone stuffed with endive, tuma cheese, tomato and anchovies.
There is also the Focaccia alla messinese, prepared with tomato sauce, tuma cheese, vegetables and anchovies.

A survey from 2004 showed that Norwegians eat the most pizza (5.4 kg/person*year), followed by Germans.
Canada: was first introduced to pizza in the late 1950s, with the arrival of the first pizza ovens entering the country.Some of Canada’s highly reputable and successful Pizza brand Boston Pizza,
also known as BP’s in Canada and Boston’s the Gourmet pizza in the United States and Mexico, is one of Canada’s largest franchising restaurants
Australia: Italian varieties are available, though more common is the style popular in the U.S., with more and richer toppings than Italian style.
A common unique type is the Aussie, Australian or Australiana which has the usual tomato sauce base and mozzarella cheese with bacon and egg
Pizzas with seafood such as prawns are also popular. In the 1980s some Australian pizza shops and restaurants began selling “gourmet pizzas”,
that is, pizzas with more expensive ingredients such as salmon, dill, bocconcini, tiger prawns, or unconventional toppings such as kangaroo, emu and crocodile.
“Wood-fired pizzas”, that is, those cooked in a ceramic oven heated by wood fuel, are well-regarded.

Bangladesh:Home-made Pizza in Bangladesh
a popular fast food in Bangladeshi urban areas. Introduction of various branded pizza such as Domino’s and Pizza Hut in early to mid-2000s,
it has reached almost all classes of urban peoples.
Brazil:Pizza made using Chocolate, served as a dessert at a restaurant in Brazil
São Paulo has 6,000 pizza establishments and 1.4 million pizzas are consumed daily.
It is said that the first Brazilian pizzas were baked in the Brás district of São Paulo in the early part of the 20th century.
Until the 1950s, they were only found in the Italian communities. Since then, pizza became increasingly popular among the rest of the population.
though, tends to have less tomato sauce than the Italian version, or uses slices of tomato in place of sauce.
Brazilian pizzerias offer also Brazilian variants such as “pizza com catupiry”.
July 10 is “Pizza Day” in São Paulo, marking the final day of an annual competition among “pizzaiolos”.
In Brazil, pizza quatro queijos (pizza quattro formaggi) uses mozzarella, provolone, parmesan and gorgonzola, and there is also a variety with five cheeses,
which adds catupiry.
India:Pizza is an emerging fast food in Indian urban areas. American pizza chains opened their first outlets in India in 1996.
pizza is available in most cities in India.
Pizzas served in India Indian pizzas are generally spicier and more veggie-oriented, For instance, oregano spice packs are included with a typical pizza order
instead of Parmesan cheese.
several Indian-style toppings like Tandoori Chicken and Paneer. Pizzas available in India range from localized basic variants available in neighborhood bakeries,
to gourmet pizzas with exotic and imported ingredients available at specialty restaurants.
Israel:Pizza with corn and za’atar in Kfar Saba, Israel
Many Israeli and American pizza stores and chains, including Pizza Hut and Sbarro, have both kosher and non-kosher locations.
Kosher locations either have no meat or use imitation meat because of the Jewish religious dietary prohibition against mixing meat with dairy products,
Kosher pizza locations must also close during the holiday of Passover, when no leavened bread is allowed in kosher locations.
Some Israeli pizza differs from pizza in other countries because of the very large portions of vegetable toppings such as mushrooms or onions,
and some unusual toppings, like corn or labane, and middle-Eastern spices, such as za’atar. Like most foods in Israel, pizza choices reflect multiple cultures.
Japan:American pizza chains entered Japan in the 1970s. The largest Japanese pizza chain is Pizza-La. Local types of pizza are popular, with many using mayonnaise sauces,
and sometimes other ingredients such as corn, potatoes, avocado, eel, or even honey or chocolate (as in dessert).
“Side orders” also often include items such as french fries, fried chicken, baked pasta, as well as vegetable soups, green salads, desserts, and soda or
Japanese tea. There is also a strong connection to using Tabasco sauce on cooked pizzas.
Local crust variants also exist, for instance mochi pizza (crust made with Japanese mochi cakes).
The Italian association Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana also has an independent branch in Japan.
Korea:Pizza is a popular snack food in South Korea, especially among younger people. Major American brands compete against domestic brands such as Mr. Pizza and Pizza Etang,
offering traditional as well as local varieties which may include toppings such as bulgogi and dak galbi.
Korean-style pizza tends to be complicated, and often has nontraditional toppings such as corn, potato wedges, sweet potato, shrimp, or crab.
The super-deluxe “Grand Prix” at Mr. Pizza has Cajun shrimp, bell peppers, olives, and mushrooms on one side, and potato wedges, bacon, crushed tortilla chips, and
sour cream on the other side. Its potato mousse-filled cookie dough crust is sprinkled with sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and raisins,
and can be dipped in a blueberry sauce that is provided.
many Italian restaurants in Seoul and other major cities. North Korea’s first pizzeria opened in its capital Pyongyang in 2009
Mexico: The Mexican pizza is not Mexican in origin, but is a regionally modified cuisine of Italian pizza. This type of pizza is called “Mexicana” by adding Mexican toppings.
The usual toppings that can be found throughout Mexico are chorizo, jalapeño pepper slices, grilled or fried onions, tomato, chile, hominy, shrimp, avocado,
and sometimes beef, bell peppers, tripas or scallop. This pizza has the usual marinara sauce or white sauce and mozzarella cheese.
Variations, substituting pepper jack cheese or Oaxaca cheese for mozzarella, are also popular.
A Mexican pizza is offered by Taco Bell fast food restaurant in most locations in North America.
Nepal: popular as a fast food in the urban areas of Nepal, particularly in the capital city, Kathmandu. There are a number of restaurants that serve pizzas in Kathmandu.
With the opening of a number of international pizza brands, the popularity as well as consumption has markedly increased in recent times.
Norway:The Norwegians eat most pizza in the world 50 million frozen pizzas a year, with consumption being 22,000 tons of frozen pizza, 15,000 tons of home-baked and
13,000 tons of restaurant-made pizzas.
Pakistan:The first pizzerias opened up in Karachi and Islamabad in the late 1980s, with Pappasallis serving pizza in Islamabad since 1990.
Pizza has gained a measure of popularity in the eastern regions of Pakistan—namely, the provinces of Sindh, Punjab, and Azad Kashmir,
as well as the autonomous territory of Gilgit-Baltistan.
Pizza has not penetrated into western Pakistan; of the remaining provinces and territories of Pakistan, only one (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) has seen much of the dish,
in the form of a single Pizza Hut in Peshawar.
In the regions where pizza is known, spicy chicken and sausage-based pizzas are very popular, as they cater to the local palate.
Sweden:Pizza arrived in Sweden with Italian guest workers and became popular around 1970. Swedish pizza is mainly of the Neapolitan type and most pizzerias in Sweden
have pizzas Margherita, Capricciosa and Quattro Stagioni at the top of the menu, although with altered recipes.
For example, a Swedish Margherita uses Swedish hard cheese instead of mozzarella and dried oregano instead of fresh basil.
The Swedish pizza has been developed with lots of inventions and styles, creating a tradition distinct from the Italian one,
although some names may coincide. Occasionally pizzerias offer “Italian pizza” imitating Italian recipes in addition to the Swedish ones.
A typical Swedish pizzeria offers 40-50 different named varieties in the menu, even up to 100, and personal modifications are offered.
Besides, many pizzerias also serve salads, lasagne, kebab and hamburgers, especially if there is a facility to sit and eat.
Italian style restaurants often combine a restaurant menu with a pizza menu.
Some popular varieties common in most of Sweden, mostly with the same name, all having tomato sauce and cheese to start with and additional toppings:
Capricciosa: mushrooms, ham
Quattro Stagioni: ham, shrimps, (mussels), mushrooms, artichoke
Vegetariana: mushrooms, onion, (pineapple), (artichoke), (asparagus), (paprika)
Marinara: shrimps, mussels
Frutti di mare: tuna, shrimps, mussels
Napolitana: anchovies, olives, capers
Hawaii: ham, pineapple
Ciao-ciao (folded): beef, garlic, (onion)
Calzone (folded): ham
Bolognese: minced meat, onion, (fresh tomato)
Africana: ham/beef/chicken, banana, pineapple, onion, curry powder
Kebabpizza: döner kebab, onion, green peperoncini, (kebab sauce poured over after baking)
Mexicana: various recipes with minced beef, jalapeños, onion, spicy sauce and other hot ingredients
Varieties with filet of beef or pork and sauce béarnaise and onion
One of the most popular types of pizza in Sweden since the 1990s is kebab-pizza, and a song in the Swedish Eurovision song contest 2008 was “Kebabpizza slivovitza”.
The invention ought to be a result of the common tendency of pizza bakers to create their own flagship compositions and novel flavors,
using whatever might be available in their kitchen. Since the last years one can find pizza with fresh lettuce or chips (French fries) put on top after baking.
The amount of topping compared to the crust is rather high in international comparison.
The typical side order with Swedish pizza is a free “pizza salad”, made with shredded cabbage, coarse pepper and sometimes red paprika, slightly pickled (fermented)
in vinaigrette for a few days.
In general, Swedish pizzerias are private enterprises and not franchise, often owned as a family business by immigrants, but very seldom Italians.
Russia — mockba (a combination of sardines, tuna, mackerel, salmon, and onions), red herring
France — flambée (bacon, onion, fresh cream)
Costa Rica — coconut
Netherlands — “Double Dutch” — double meat, double cheese, double onion

stuffed crust conspiracy: evidence exsibit 1:
Patent US4661361 – Forming closed pockets on dough base for variety of fillings
Publication number US4661361 A
Publication type Grant
Application number US 06/624,190
Publication date Apr 28, 1987
Filing date Jun 25, 1984
Priority date Jun 25, 1984
Fee status Paid

Inventors Anthony T. Mongiello, Lawrence A. Mongiello, Sr., Angelo A. Mongiello, Sr.
Original Assignee Mongiello Anthony T, Mongiello Sr Lawrence A, Mongiello Sr Angelo A
Export Citation BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Patent Citations (11), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (24), Classifications (11), Legal Events (4)

Forming closed pockets on dough base for variety of fillings
US 4661361 A

US4661361-1

US4661361-2

US4661361-3

A pizza shell and a method for forming pizza shells. The pizza shell comprises a dough base, a plurality of closed pockets uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the base, and a plurality of food portions held within those closed pockets. To form the pizza shell, a flat dough base is formed, a plurality of food portions are placed on the dough base, the food portions are covered, and a plurality of closed pockets are formed to enclose each food portion within a separate closed pocket. The pizza shell is then used in a conventional manner to make a pizza pie.

We claim:

1. A method of making a pizza comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a generally flat dough base;

(b) placing a plurality of separated individual food portions on the dough base such that, when the dough base is cut into substantially equalily sized portions, each individual food portion is located upon a portion of each piece;

(c) covering each food portion with an unbaked dough section of sufficient dimensions to cover said food portion thereby forming a separate closed pocket about each food portion;

(d) covering the portions of the dough base which are not covered by said closed pockets with a layer of tomato sauce and cheese to form an unbaked pizza product; and

(e) baking the unbaked product to obtain a pizza.

2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the placing step includes the step of uniformly locating the individual food portions upon the dough base.

3. A method according to claim 1 wherein:
(a) the placing step further includes the step of locating the individual food portions adjacent an outside perimeter of the dough base;

(b) the covering step includes the step of folding an outside peripheral strip of the dough base over the food portions; and

(c) the step of forming a plurality of closed pockets includes the steps of
(i) pinching an edge of the peripheral strip to the dough base, and

(ii) pinching to the dough base areas of the peripheral strip between the food portions.

4. A method according to claim 1 wherein:
(a) the covering step includes the step of covering the food portions with unbaked dough sections which are separate from the dough base; and

(b) the step of forming a plurality of closed pockets includes the step of pinching areas of the dough sections to the dough base.

5. A method according to claim 4 wherein the dough sections comprise a single continuous strip of dough.

6. A method according to claim 4 wherein the dough sections comprise a plurality of separate pieces of dough.

7. A method according to claim 1 wherein the placing step includes the steps of:
(a) placing template means having a plurality of openings on the dough base; and

(b) placing the individual food portions on the dough base through the template openings.

8. A method according to claim 7 wherein the template openings are uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the template.

9. A method according to claim 1 wherein the covering step further comprises the steps of placing a pinching apparatus having a plurality of bars forming a framework upon said dough base; and pressing the pinching apparatus onto the dough sections covering the food portions to join the dough sections to the dough base.

10. A method according to claim 1 wherein the layer of tomato sauce and cheese further comprises a topping.

11. A method of making a pizza comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a generally flat dough base;

(b) forming a plurality of closed pockets each pocket enclosing a portion of food;

(c) placing the closed pockets on portions of the dough base;

(d) covering portions of the dough base which are not covered by said closed pockets with a layer of tomato sauce and cheese to form an unbaked pizza product; and

(e) baking the unbaked product to obtain a pizza.

12. A method according to claim 11 wherein the placing step includes the step of uniformly distributing the pockets about at least a portion of the base.

13. A method according to claim 11 wherein the layer of tomato sauce and cheese further comprises a topping.

14. A method of making a pizza product comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a generally flat dough base;

(b) placing template means having a plurality of openings upon the dough base;

(c) placing individual food portions upon the dough base through the template openings;

(d) removing the template means;

(e) forming a plurality of closed pockets around each individual food portion upon the dough base with dough; and

(f) covering the areas on the dough base which are not covered by the closed pockets with a layer comprising tomato sauce and cheese to form an unbaked pizza product.

15. The method of claim 14 further comprising baking the unbaked pizza product to obtain a pizza.


Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention generally relates to pizzas, and more specifically to pizza shells and to methods of making pizza shells.

The conventional pizza pie comprises a dough base formed into a generally flat, circular or rectangular shell and covered with a sauce and a topping. Normally, the dough is a bread dough, the sauce is a tomato sauce, and the topping includes cheese and often also includes other foods such as pieces of pepperoni or anchovies. An outer edge crust is formed around the perimeter of the dough base to hold the sauce and the topping on the base as the pie is made. The pie is then baked in an oven, cut, and eaten.

Pizza is a very popular food. Nevertheless, the conventional pizza pie does have several disadvantages. For example, many people do not like to eat the baked outer crust of a pizza and often they simply throw that crust away. In addition, usually only a relatively limited number of food products are used with pizzas. Another disadvantage of pizzas of the general type described above is that the amount of the topping provided with individual pizzas normally is also within a relatively narrow range. Pizzas do not have the same flexibility as sandwiches have, for example, with respect to the range of different food products or the quantity of food products that are normally used with pizzas.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is a pizza shell and a method of making a pizza shell. The shell comprises a dough base, a plurality of closed pockets uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the base, and a plurality of food portions held within those closed pockets. The shell is made by forming a generally flat dough base, placing a plurality of food portions on that base, covering the food portions, and forming a plurality of closed pockets to enclose each food portion within a separate closed pocket.

An extremely wide range of foods such as meats, meatballs, creams, fruit fillings, eggs, or vegetables may be located in the closed pockets. Thus, with the present invention it is very simple to provide a pizza that satisfies an appetite or a hunger for a plurality of different types of foods. In addition, the size of the closed pockets and the amount of food located in individual pockets may vary over a very wide range. As a result, pizzas, or even a single pizza, employing the present invention may be used to satisfy widely varying appetites. Moreover, because the closed pockets are uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the base of the pizza shell, those pockets facilitate cutting that portion into a plurality of substantially equally sized pieces with one pocket on each piece.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a top view of a pizza shell in accordance with this invention.

FIGS. 2 and 3 are sectional views taken along lines II–II and III–III of FIG. 1 respectively.

FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 are top views of three alternate embodiments of the present invention.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show the pizza shells of FIGS. 1 and 4 respectively during formation of those shells.

FIG. 9 shows a pinching mechanism and FIG. 10 shows a template that are used to make the pizza shell shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken along line XI–XI of FIG. 10.
A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 show pizza shell 100 generally comprising dough base 102, a plurality of closed pockets 104, and a plurality of food portions 106. Any suitable dough, for instance a conventional bread dough, may be used as base 102. Base 102 is generally flat, and as shown in FIG. 1, the base has a generally circular shape. Pockets 104 are uniformly distributed over at least a portion of base 102 so that this portion of the base may be cut into a plurality of equally sized pieces with each such piece having one closed pocket thereon.

With the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 1, the means that form pockets 104 extend substantially continuously around the entire perimeter of base 102. In this way, pockets 104 also form an outer raised rim or crust of pizza shell 100 to hold sauce and toppings on the inside surface of base 102 during preparation and cooking of a pizza pie having shell 100. Alternately, it should be noted, the means that form pockets 104 may extend along only a portion of the perimeter of base 102, for example a half or a quarter of that perimeter. In both cases, preferably the means that form pockets 104, first, has a length substantially longer than its width, and second, longitudinally extends along the perimeter of base 102.

Food portions 106 include foods different from dough base 102 and are held within pockets 106. An extremely wide range of foods may be located in pockets 104. For instance, food portions 106 may include cheeses, creams, fruit fillings, eggs, vegetables, or meats such as pepperoni, sausage, or meatballs. The different food portions 106 of a pizza shell 100 may consist of different foods. For instance, one food portion of a particular pizza shell 100 may consist of eggs, while another food portion of the same pizza shell may consist of meatballs. Moreover, the size of pockets 104 and the amount of food in individual pockets may also vary widely, even on the same pizza shell. For example, a single pizza shell 100 may be formed with one large pocket having a large amount of food, such as four or five meatballs, and with one small pocket having a much smaller amount of food, such as one meatball or a half a meatball. Thus, the present invention provides an individual with a very high degree of flexibility to prepare a pizza pie that will satisfy a number of appetites for different types and quantities of food.

It should be noted that pizza shells in accordance with the present invention may include bases with shapes other than as shown in FIG. 1, and that the closed pockets of the shells may be positioned about or over the base in a number of different patterns. For example, FIG. 4 shows pizza shell 110 also having a generally flat, round base 112 but where closed pockets 114 are located between the circumference and center of the base, substantially equally spaced apart in an annular direction. FIG. 5 illustrates pizza shell 120 having a generally rectangular or square dough base 122, with a plurality of closed pockets 124 extending along opposite edges of the base. FIG. 6 illustrates pizza shell 130 also having a generally rectangular or square base 132, and a plurality of closed pockets 134 uniformly distributed over the surface area of that base.

One particular advantage of the pizza shells shown in FIGS. 1 and 5 is that those shells advantageously employ a part of the shell that is often simply discarded–the outer peripheral crust–to form the pizza pockets and thereby to increase the taste and appeal of pizza pies made from those shells.

With all the preferred embodiments of the pizza shells discussed above, the ends of the pizza pockets are pinched downward to the bases of the shells. These pinched ends of the pockets facilitate cutting the pizza shells into a plurality of equally sized pieces, by providing a visual guide as to where the pizza shells should be cut to accomplish this. This feature of the present invention is especially pronounced with the embodiments of the pizza shells illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 5.

In particular, with pizza shell 100 shown in FIG. 1, the means that forms pockets 104 also forms pocket ends 108, which are substantially equally spaced apart along the perimeter of base 102, between each adjacent pair of pockets 104. By cutting pizza shell 100 along radii extending through pocket ends 108, the pizza shell can be cut into eight equally sized pieces, with each piece having one closed pocket thereon. As will be appreciated by those knowledgeable in the art, if the means that form pockets 104 extends along only a portion of the perimeter of base 102, pocket ends 108 may be substantially equally spaced apart along that portion of the perimeter of the base, and thus help to cut at least a part of shell 100 into a plurality of equally sized pieces.

With reference to FIG. 5, the means that forms pockets 124 also forms pocket ends 128. A first group of pocket ends are substantially equally spaced apart along a first edge of base 122, between adjacent pairs of pockets 124 on that edge of the base; and a second group of pocket ends are substantially equally spaced apart along a second, opposite edge of base 122, between adjacent pairs of pockets 124 on that edge of the base. By cutting pizza shell 120 along lines extending between opposing ends of opposite pockets 124, pizza shell 120 is divided into three sections. Then by cutting each of these sections in half across the width of those sections, pizza shell 120 is cut into six equally sized pieces, with each piece having one closed pocket 124 thereon. Cutting the pizza shells 100 and 120 into a plurality of pieces without cutting through the interior of pockets 104 or 124 insures that any food or filling in those pockets does not accidentally spill from those pockets as the individual pizza pieces are cut and handled.

Generally, pizza shell 100 is made by forming a flat dough base 102, placing a plurality of food portions 106 on this base, covering the food portions, and then forming closed pockets 104 to enclose those food portions. This general method may be accomplished in a number of specific ways.

For example, with reference to FIG. 7, food portions 106 may be located adjacent and slightly spaced from the outside perimeter of base 102, and then an outer peripheral strip of the dough base may be folded inward and over the food portions, toward the center of the base. The inside circumferential edge of this strip and portions of the strip between adjacent food portions are then pinched to base 102 to form closed pockets enclosing food portions 106.

As an alternate method, with reference now to FIG. 8, the food portions are placed on the dough base, and then one or more pieces of dough, initially separate from the dough base, are placed over those food portions and outside edges of those cover pieces are pinched to the dough base to form a plurality of closed pockets. This method is especially well suited to form the pizza shells having closed pockets that are not closely located adjacent an outside edge of the dough base, for example pizza shell 110 shown in FIG. 4 or pizza shell 130 shown in FIG. 6.

With both of the above-described methods, a pinching mechanism comprising an appropriately shaped grid of rods or bars may be used to pinch to the dough base the material that covers the food portions. One such framework 150, specifically designed to help make pizza shell 100 of FIG. 1, is shown in FIG. 9. Framework 150 comprises outer ring 152, inner ring 154, and a plurality of diametrically extending bars or rods 156. Outer ring has a diameter substantially equal to the outer diameter of pizza shell 100, and inner ring 152 has a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the circle formed by the inside perimeter of pockets 104. Rods 154 extend along radii of the circles formed by rings 152 and 154 and are angularly equally spaced around those circles. In use, after food portions 106 are covered with material, framework 150 is pressed onto shell 100 so that bars 156 pinch to base 102 areas of that food cover material that are between adjacent pairs of food portions 106. With modifications well within the purview of those of ordinary skill in the art, alternate frameworks may be designed for use with other pizza shells constructed in accordance with this invention.

Preferably, it should be observed, the food portions of the pizza shells are covered with the same dough that is used to form the base of those shells. However, a dough having a consistency or texture different from the consistency and texture of the dough base, or having additional food materials mixed in the dough base, may be used to cover the food portions. Also, a plurality of closed pockets, with food portions enclosed therein, may be formed separately from the dough base and then placed thereon. Depending on the specific food or foods comprising the food portions, it may further be desirable to form small vent openings in the sides of the closed pockets, for example by punching those sides with the prongs of a fork, to allow steam or other vapors to escape from those closed pockets during baking of the pizza shell.

Moreover, with both of the specific methods disclosed above, a template may be used to locate the food portions of the pizza shells in the preferred position. FIGS. 10 and 11 show one template 160 that may be used in the practice of this invention, and that, in particular, is used to make pizza shell 100 of FIG. 1. Template 160 comprises a substantially flat metal plate 162 having a plurality of openings 164 formed therein. In use, template 160 is placed on dough base 102 after that base has been formed into a flat shape. Then food portions 106 are placed on the dough base, through openings 164. As shown in FIG. 11, the edges of openings 164 may be turned up to help form and hold food portions 106 in a small lump or pile on dough base 102. As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, template 160 is removed prior to covering food portions 106.

Once formed, the pizza shells described above may be used to make pizza pies in a conventional manner. That is, a tomato sauce is poured or ladled onto the base of the shell and then covered or sprinkled with cheese. Additional foods such as sausage or pepperoni may be placed on the shell. Then the pizza pie is baked in a conventional manner.

While it is apparent that the invention disclosed herein is well calculated to fulfill the objects stated above, it will be appreciated that numerous modifications and embodiments may be devised by those skilled in the art, and it is intended that the appended claims cover all such modifications and embodiments as fall within the true spirit and scope of the present invention.

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Referenced by

US4938975 * Sep 6, 1988 Jul 3, 1990 Roland Waller Food product and method of making same
US5185167 * Apr 6, 1990 Feb 9, 1993 Janet Schwartz Placing edible filling in center of dough rectangle, folding to enclose, pressing to secure, refrigerating, dipping in caustic soda solution, baking
US5312633 * Feb 5, 1993 May 17, 1994 Janet Schwartz Method of making a stuffed pretzel dough product and completed stuffed pretzel product
US5756137 * Dec 22, 1995 May 26, 1998 Little Caesar Enterprise, Inc. Sealing dough to cover filling; controlling fat content of filling ingredient to eliminate breaking of seals; baking
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US6168812 Apr 29, 1997 Jan 2, 2001 Jeno F. Paulucci Microwavable semi-circular pizza product and packaging combination
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US7610837 Apr 21, 2005 Nov 3, 2009 Pizza Hut, Inc. Systems and methods for making a pizza pie having an outer cheese portion
US7823489 * Sep 10, 2009 Nov 2, 2010 Pizza Hut, Inc. Systems and methods for making a pizza pie having an outer cheese portion
US7914836 * Apr 17, 2006 Mar 29, 2011 Pizza Hut, Inc. Pizza with segmented crust
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WO2002021927A1 * Sep 11, 2001 Mar 21, 2002 Mark Deraud A method of configuring a slice of a pizza-type pie and an apparatus for preparing a pizza-type pie
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WO2014022606A1 * Aug 1, 2013 Feb 6, 2014 Findlay Michael C System for applying patterned crust segments to dough

* Cited by examiner

Classifications
U.S. Classification 426/283, 426/302, 426/297, 426/502, 426/94
International Classification A21C11/00, A21D13/00
Cooperative Classification A21D13/007, A21C11/00
European Classification A21D13/00H2, A21C11/00

pizza fun Facts …
October is National Pizza Month.
Mozzarella cheese was originally made from the milk of water buffalo!
how many pizzas are sold worldwide per year? 5 billion

Pizza History Timeline
• 1st millennium BC – Archeologist in Sardinia found ancient remains of a flattened bread that was apparently very popular among local population.
• 6th Century B.C – Writings of the conquests of Darius the Great (521-486 B.C.) mention that his soldiers baked a kind of bread flat upon their shields and then covered it with cheese and dates. This is possibly the earliest mentioning of pizza.
• 3rd Century B.C. – Famous Roman historian Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C.) mentioned in his memoirs about “flat round of dough dressed with olive oil, herbs, and honey baked on stones.”
• 1st Century B.C. – Roman poet Virgil described in one of his famous poems “The Aeneid” a cakes or circles of bread that resemble pizza.
• 1st Century B.C . – Excavations made in Pompeii under the mountain and volcano Vesuvius that prove the existence of pizzas that were common in that part of Italy. People of Pompeii and nearby Naples often eat such meals, and in the ruins of Pompeii archeologist even found entire untouched workshops, shops, and tools of the trade that are used for selling and production of pizzas.
• 1522 – After tomatoes were first imported to the Europe from the New World, people of Naples first managed to combine them with their bread products, thus creating the earliest form of modern pizza. As was Naples one of the centers of the Italy food production and a busy port full of sailors, the word of mouth about this new dish spread across the Europe.
• 17th Century – Pizza created in Naples gained great popularity among its citizens and tourists who visited that area of Italy.
• 18th Century – Wife of King of Naples, Queen Maria Carolina d’Asburgo Lorena (1752-1814) had in her palace special oven that was used for making pizzas.
• 1830 – Antica Pizzeria Port’Alba, the first ever modern pizzeria opened in Naples.
• 1889 – By the orders of Umberto I King of Italy and his wife Queen Margherita di Savoia, the most famous Naples pizza chef Raffaele Esposito created for them three pizzas. After the King and Queen expressed their immense satisfaction for his work, Naples became firmly the center of Pizza world, and designs of Raffaele Esposito became standard for all future pizzas.
• 19th Century – By the end of 19th century, citizens of Naples consumed pizza for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The manufacturing of pizzas gained much advancement, especially use of various toppings. Pizza was sold on the streets, and later on in dedicated street establishments – pizzerias.
• Early 20th century – The first Italian pizza in America was introduced in Chicago by the street peddlers who walked up and down Taylor Street and sold the hot slices of Pizzas to the pedestrians. They maintained the heat of the slices by holding them in cylindrical drums that had a compartment which was filled with hot charcoal.
• 1905 – First American license for baking pizzas granted to Gennaro Lombardiin Spring Street in New York City.
• 1910 – Famous Joe’s Tomato Pies pizzeria opens in Trenton’s Chambersburg section.
• 1912 – Papa’s Tomato Pies, one of the oldest pizzerias that is still active was opened in Trenton’s Chambersburg.
• 1924 – Famous American cook Anthony “Totonno” Pero opens his Totonno’s Pizzeria in Coney Island, N.Y.
• 1925 – Frank Pepe opened his famous Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Conn.
• 1943 – Invention of Chicago-style deep-dish pizza (with crust that rises an inch or more above the plate and surrounds deep piles of toppings) by Ike Sewell in his “Pizzeria Uno”.
• 1945 – American soldiers that returned from the World War 2 brought home their newfound taste for pizza.
1950 – Popularity of pizza rose in America after several big celebrities of Italian origin started promoting it (Jerry Colonna, Frank Sinatra, Jimmy Durante, and baseball star Joe DiMaggio).
• 1957 -The first supermarket frozen pizza was released by Celentano Brothers. Soon after that frozen pizzas became very popular across entire US.
• 1958 – Opening of the first Pizza Hut in Wichita, Kansas, which will later become worldwide franchise of pizza restaurants.
• 1959 – The first of many “Little Caesar” pizzerias opens.
• 1967 – The first Domino’s opens.
• 1984 – The first Papa John’s opens.
• 1995 -The first appearance of revolutionary “self-rising” crust was unveiled by Kraft, which purchased Tombstone in 1986.
• 2009 – European Union established ruling that protected Naples’ Neapolitan pizza as a cultural food heritage. All pizzerias that want to create real Neapolitan pizza must comply with the strict standards for ingredients and process of its preparation.

*New* How To MIME ,by MaryJane




IMG_20140131_200724 mj mime ht pic

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Part1 how to create your own Mime– How To Everything from Make-Up technique to The Act
part2 is a short film titled “Mime On The Loose In Paris” a example of The Act of A MIME enjoy and create your own unique character

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th33BDL9ZL mime mask200px-Jean_+_Brigitte_Soubeyran_Im_Zirkus
mime noun
1. the art or technique of portraying a character, mood, idea, or narration by gestures and bodily movements; pantomime.
2. an actor who specializes in this art.
3. an ancient Greek or Roman farce that depended for effect largely upon ludicrous actions and gestures.
4. a player in such a farce.
5.mimic

3287 powder10 creme makeup
basic makeup cream white foundation whitw or no color powder blacl cream makeup/eyeliner and detail brush design your own unique look… ask for setting spray at your local make up specialty store(I highly recommend it )

 

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A mime artist (from Greek “μίμος”—mimos, “imitator, actor”) is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art, involving miming, or the acting out a story through body motions, without use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would typically be referred to as a mummer. Miming is to be distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a seamless character in a film or sketch.
The performance of pantomime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece; the name is taken from a single masked dancer called Pantomimus, although performances were not necessarily silent. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and later dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that we have come to know in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface.
Jacques Copeau, strongly influenced by Commedia dell’arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors. Étienne Decroux, a pupil of his, was highly influenced by this and started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime and developed corporeal mime into a highly sculptural form, taking it outside of the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed significantly to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods
In film
:Chaplin_A_Dogs_Life.jpgA Dog’s Life (1918). Chaplin
Prior to the work of Étienne Decroux there was no major treatise on the art of mime, and so any recreation of mime as performed prior to the twentieth century is largely conjecture, based on interpretation of diverse sources. However, the twentieth century also brought a new medium into widespread usage: the motion picture.
The restrictions of early motion picture technology meant that stories had to be told with minimal dialogue, which was largely restricted to intertitles. This often demanded a highly stylized form of physical acting largely derived from the stage. Thus, mime played an important role in films prior to advent of talkies (films with sound or speech). The mimetic style of film acting was used to great effect in German Expressionist film.
Silent film comedians like Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd and Buster Keaton learned the craft of mime in the theatre, but through film, they would have a profound influence on mimes working in live theatre decades after their deaths. Indeed, Chaplin may be the most well-documented mime in history.
Mime has been performed onstage, with Marcel Marceau and his character “Bip” being the most famous. Mime is also a popular art form in street theatre and busking. Traditionally, these sorts of performances involve the actor/actress wearing tight black and white clothing with white facial makeup. However, contemporary mimes often perform without whiteface. Similarly, while traditional mimes have been completely silent, contemporary mimes, while refraining from speaking, sometimes employ vocal sounds when they perform. Mime acts are often comical, but some can be very serious.
Greek and Roman mime
The first recorded pantomime actor was Telestēs in the play Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus. Tragic pantomime was developed by Puladēs of Kilikia; comic pantomime was developed by Bathullos of Alexandria.
The Roman emperor Trajan banished pantomimists; Caligula favored them; Marcus Aurelius made them priests of Apollo. Nero himself acted as a mime

How to holiday party makeup Ep#13



A Classic naturally elegant look to go with anything from a little black dress to a vast array of holiday gowns or cocktail dresses use your natural beauty Pick a fun coordinating color go light on the eye shadow base then a medium to deep color blend well so there are no defining lines pick a sexy lip color that gives you the feel of decadence this night might be full of family or business party but you will survive best if you are excited for a magical evening
blonds soft peachy lips or for a tan warm oranges for lips and cheeks
brunets deep strong colors
red heads neutral to bronze but to really pop
blue eyes are Gold, bronze, copper, champagne, yellow-beige, peach ,complimented with grey or brown purple is magical as well
brown eyes Bronze, peach, purple, navy, teal, green
terracotta to peachy fun
hazel can go Gray, dusty pink, burgundy, deep purple, yellow-brown
coppers to violet
green is great Sepia, rust, purple, pink
false eyelashes are a must , pick ½ lashes to place on the outer half or a small to medium full lash if you have big eyes go big on lashes &Happy Holidays