Perfect, BackSeams…”HowTo”


Seamed: Stockings manufactured in the old Full-Fashioned manner with a seam running up the back of the leg. In the past they were manufactured by cutting the fabric and then sewing it together. Today stockings are generally fully knitted and a fake or mock seam is added up the back for a particular fashion look. Some brands also produce seamed hold-ups.

Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; and those products are also known generically as hose. The term is also used for all types of knitted fabric, and its thickness and weight is defined in terms of denier or opacity. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items.

The first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, where Romans are said to have used leather or cloth in forms of strips to cover their lower body parts. Even the Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs.

Before the 1920s, women’s stockings, if worn, were worn for warmth. In the 1920s, as hemlines of women’s dresses rose, women began to wear stockings to cover the exposed legs. These stockings were sheer, first made of silk or rayon (then known as “artificial silk”), and after 1940 of nylon.




Paint-on Hosiery During the War Years

A back “seam” drawn with an eyebrow pencil topped off the resourceful fashion effect
So it’s Saturday night in 1941, and you want to wear stockings with your cocktail dress, but the new wonder material nylon has been rationed for the war effort and has disappeared from department store shelves. What do you do in such times of patriotic privation? You get resourceful, and cover your legs with a layer of nude-colored makeup, and line the back of each leg with a trompe l’oeil seam.

Last week, in the first post from the Stocking Series, we heard about the huge reception of nylon hosiery. On May 16, 1940, officially called “Nylon Day,” four million pairs of nylons landed in stores and sold out within two days! But only a year later, the revolutionary product became scarce when the World War II economy directed all nylon into manufacturing parachutes, rope and netting.
Having trouble with your seam? No problem! This contraption, made from a screwdriver handle, bicycle leg clip and an ordinary eyebrow pencil would do the trick!






pizza 1
this is me making the pizza dough my mommy made (she was against frozen&fast food)
so anytime I wanted id grab a ball of dough and add sauce(I skipped yucky) cheese and occasionally peperoni then bake …
I invented this recipe …on the grounds one day I daydreamed my version of the perfect pizza and here it is …
(I do recommend yeast I forgot it plus honey or sugar 1tea spoon)

Healthy Pizza is possible just know your ingredients and choose the best…
my pizza wasn’t vegan probably not gluten free but I did use healthy fresh ingredients here is recipe for the healthiest
vegan pizza :

Easy Buffalo Mozzarella
1 cup plain, unsweetened soy yogurt
1 cup raw cashews, soaked in water for 3 – 8 hours and drained
1 cup water, divided
1 1/2 teaspoons sea salt
3 tablespoons tapioca flour
1 tablespoon agar powder
Combine the yogurt, cashews, a half cup of the water, and salt in a blender and process until emulsified. Transfer to a container, cover loosely, and set aside for 12 to 24 hours until slightly tangy. Whisk in the tapioca flour.
Combine the agar and remaining half cup of water in a small saucepan. Whisk together. Cover with a lid and bring to a boil. Simmer for 3 to 4 minutes. Pour in the yogurt mixture and mix well with a whisk. Continue cooking over medium heat, stirring with a wooden spoon, until the mixture is smooth, glossy, and stretchy.
Prepare a large bowl of ice water. Using an ice cream scooper, drop balls of the cheese into the ice bath. Let sit for 20 to 30 minutes until firm.

Vegan Pepperoni
Note: if you want a milder pepperoni, cut back on the pepper and pepper flakes.
- 1/2 cup of white kidney beans, rinsed and drained
- 1 cup cold water
- 1 tbsp olive oil
- 1 tsp liquid smoke
- 1 tsp HP sauce, or BBQ sauce
- 1 tbsp paprika
- 1/4 tsp cayenne pepper
- 1 tsp salt
- 1 tbsp sugar
- 1 tsp whole anise seed
- 1 tsp red peppercorns
- 1 tsp green peppercorns
- 1 tsp crushed red pepper flakes
- 1 1/4 cups vital wheat gluten
Get your water on it way to boiling in your steamer
1. Finely mash the beans with a fork. Add water, oil, liquid smoke, HP or BBQ sauce, paprika, cayenne, salt and sugar and mix well.
2. Roughly grind anise seed, peppercorns, and red pepper flakes with a mortar and pestle. Add into mixture. Add in wheat gluten and mix well with a fork.
3. Divide dough into three equal portions. Shape each into a tube and wrap like a tootsie roll in heavy duty aluminum foil. Make sure to wrap it tightly by twisting the ends. Heavy duty foil is needed to keep the pepperoni from bursting out of the wrapping when cooking.
4. Steam for 45 mins. Cool and slice.

really healthy pizza dough:
5-Ingredient Quinoa Pizza Crust (Vegan, Gluten-Free)
Prep time 8 hours Cook time 30 mins Total time 8 hours 30 mins
¾ c. quinoa, rinsed and drained
¼ c. water
½ t. sea salt
1 t. baking powder
1 T. oil (I’ve used both coconut and olive with great results. Be sure the coconut oil is melted if you choose to use it.)
1.Rinse the quinoa VERY WELL.
2.Place the rinsed quinoa in a bowl and cover it with water (about one inch above where the quinoa sits).
3.Let the quinoa soak overnight (at least eight hours).
4.Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.
5.Drain and RINSE the quinoa VERY WELL again.
6.Place the drained and rinsed quinoa into a food processor along with the water, salt, and baking powder.
7.Process the mix for about two minutes until it is smooth in consistency.
8.Line an 8- or 9-inch cake pan with parchment paper. (I just place the cake pan on top of the parchment paper, draw an outline of it, cut it out, and place it into the cake pan.)
9.Pour the oil into the pan atop the parchment paper.
10.Pour the batter into the cake pan atop the oil, smoothing it out evenly.
11.Bake the crust for 15 minutes.
12.Carefully flip the crust over, and bake it for another five minutes.
13.Top the pizza as desired.
14.Bake the pizza for another 5-10 minutes until your toppings have cooked through.

…evidence contrary to my claim
‘pizza’ first appeared “in a Latin text from the southern Italian town of Gaeta in 997 AD
The Ancient Greek word πικτή (pikte), “fermented pastry”, which in Latin became “picta”, and Late Latin pitta > pizza.
The Ancient Greek word πίσσα (pissa, Attic πίττα, pitta), “pitch”or pḗtea, “bran” (pētítēs, “bran bread”)
Latin verb pìnsere (“to press”) and from the Greek pitta (derived from ancient Greek pēktos, πηκτός, meaning “solid” or “clotted”).
The ancient Greeks covered their bread with oils, herbs and cheese.
In Byzantine Greek, the word was spelled πίτα, pita, or πίττα, pitta, meaning pie.
The word has also spread to Romanian as pită,
Turkish as pide, and Bulgarian, Bosnian, Croatian, Macedonian and Serbian as pita,
Albanian as pite and Modern Hebrew pittāh.
The Romans developed placenta, a sheet of dough topped with cheese and honey and flavored with bay leaves.
The Latin word pinsa, the past participle of the verb “pinsere” which means to pound or to crush and may refer to the flattening out of the dough.
The Latin word picea which describes the blackening of bread in the oven or the black ash that gathers at the bottom of the oven.
The Italian word pizzicare meaning “to pluck” and refers to pizza being “plucked” quickly from the oven (pizzicare was derived from an older Italian word pizzo meaning “point”)
The Old High German word bizzo or pizzo meaning “mouthful” (related to the English words “bit” and “bite”) and was brought to Italy in the middle of the 6th century AD by the invading Lombards

Foods similar to pizza have been made since the end of the stone age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history.
Similar to flat breads in other parts of the world include the Indian Paratha , the Central and South Asian Naan and Roti , the Sardinian Carasau, Spianata, Guttiau, Pistoccu and Finnish Rieska.
Also worth note is that throughout Europe there are many similar pies based on the idea of covering flat pastry with cheese, meat, vegetables and seasoning such as the Alsatian Flammkuchen, German Zwiebelkuchen, and French Quiche.

In 16th century Naples a Galette flatbread was referred to as a pizza. Known as the dish for poor people, it was sold in the street and was not considered a kitchen recipe for a long time.
The innovation that led to flat bread pizza was the use of tomato as a topping.
For some time after the tomato was brought to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century,
it was believed by many Europeans to be poisonous (as are some other fruits of the nightshade family).
However, by the late 18th century, it was common for the poor of the area around Naples to add tomato to their yeast-based flat bread,
and so the pizza began.
The dish gained in popularity, and soon pizza became a tourist attraction as visitors to Naples ventured into the poorer areas of the city to try the local specialty.
In 1843, Alexandre Dumas, père described the diversity of pizza toppings.
An often recounted story holds that on 11 June 1889, to honour the Queen consort of Italy, Margherita of Savoy,
the Neapolitan pizzamaker Raffaele Esposito created the “Pizza Margherita”, a pizza garnished with tomatoes, mozzarella, and basil, to represent the national colours of Italy

Pizza is now a type of bread and tomato dish, often served with cheese. However, until the late nineteenth or early twentieth century,
the dish was sweet, not savory, and earlier versions which were savory more resembled the flat breads now known as schiacciata.
Pellegrino Artusi’s classic early twentieth century cookbook, La Scienza in cucina e l’Arte di mangiar bene gives three recipes for pizza, all of which are sweet.
However, by 1927, Ada Boni’s collection of regional cooking includes a recipe using tomatoes and mozzarella.

Pizza first made its appearance in the United States with the arrival of Italian immigrants in the late 19th century and was very popular among large Italian populations in New York City, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Saint Louis .
In the late 19th century, pizza was introduced by peddlers who walked up and down the streets with a metal washtub of pizzas on their heads, selling their pizzas at two cents a slice.
It was not long until small cafes and groceries began offering pizzas to their Italian-American communities.
The first printed reference to “pizza” served in the US is a
1904 article in the Boston Journal.” Giovanni and Gennero Bruno came to America from Naples Italy in 1903 to introduce the Neapolitan Pizza.”
Vincent (Jimmy) Bruno (Giovanni’s son) went on to open the first Pizzeria in “The Loop” in Chicago at 421 S. Wabash Ave,
the Yacht Club. Gennaro Lombardi opened a grocery store in 1897 which was later established as the “said” first pizzeria in America in 1905 with New York’s
issuance of the mercantile license. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero, began making pizza for the store to sell that same year.
The price for a pizza was five cents but, since many people could not afford the cost of a whole pie, they would instead say how much they could pay and they were given a slice corresponding to the amount offered.
In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi’s to open his own pizzeria on Coney Island called Totonno’s.
While the original Lombardi’s closed its doors in 1984, it was reopened in 1994 just down the street and is run by Lombardi’s grandson.
Pizza was brought to the Trenton area of New Jersey with Joe’s Tomato Pies opening in 1910, followed soon by Papa’s Tomato Pies in 1912.
In 1936, De Lorenzo’s Tomato Pies was opened. While Joe’s Tomato Pies has closed, both Papa’s and Delorenzo’s have been run by the same families since their openings and remain among the most popular pizzas in the area.
Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Connecticut, was another early pizzeria which opened in 1925 (after the owner served pies from local carts and bakeries for 20–25 years)
and is famous for its New Haven style Clam Pie. Frank Pepe’s nephew Sal Consiglio opened a competing store, Sally’s Apizza, on the other end of the block, in 1938.
Both establishments are still run by descendants of the original family. When Sal died, over 2,000 people attended his wake, and the New York Times ran a half-page memoriam.
The D’Amore family introduced pizza to Los Angeles in 1939.
Before the 1940s, pizza consumption was limited mostly to Italian immigrants and their descendants. The international breakthrough came after World War II.
Allied troops occupying Italy, weary of their rations, were constantly on the lookout for good food.
They discovered the pizzeria and local bakers were hard-pressed to satisfy the demand from the soldiers.
The American troops involved in the Italian campaign took their appreciation for the dish back home,
touted by “veterans ranging from the lowliest private to Dwight D. Eisenhower.”
Two entrepreneurs, Ike Sewell and Ric Riccardo, invented Chicago-style deep-dish pizza, in 1943.
They opened their own restaurant on the corner of Wabash and Ohio, they wanted to invent pizza nobody’s ever heard of.
Chain restaurants sprang up with pizza’s rising popularity. Leading early pizza chains were Shakey’s Pizza, founded in 1954 in Sacramento, California,
Pizza Hut, founded in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas, and
Josey’s Pizza founded in Newnan, Georgia in 1943.
Later entrant restaurant chains to the dine-in pizza market were Bertucci’s, Happy Joe’s, Monical’s Pizza, California Pizza Kitchen, Godfather’s Pizza, and Round Table Pizza.
On Super Bowl Sunday, Americans will eat an estimated 15 million pizzas.
When Pizza Hut introduced a pie with mozzarella cheese filling inside the crust in 1995, it touted the product as an industry “revolution.”
It was a bold assertion with which cheese maker Anthony Mongiello and his family immediately took issue. The Brooklyn native claimed to have created the stuffed crust
a decade earlier when he was 18 years old and, with his relatives, held a 1987 patent to prove it.
Mongiello is not the only one to claim the invention. New Jersey pizza maker Anthony Sambogna says he started making stuffed crusts in the 1960s under the name Pizza Zune. Sambogna sought credit from the chain,
not money, and received a letter from then-Chief Executive Officer Allan Huston stating: “Pizza Hut believes that you were the first person to make a pizza with a cheese-filled crust,” reported The Record newspaper in 1996.


In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source,
an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants,
a wood- or coal-fired brick oven.
On deck ovens, the pizza can be slid into the oven on a long paddle, called a peel, and baked directly on the hot bricks or baked on a screen
When made at home, it can be baked on a pizza stone in a regular oven to reproduce the effect of a brick oven.
Another option is grilled pizza, in which the crust is baked directly on a barbecue grill.
Greek pizza, like Chicago-style pizza, is baked in a pan rather than directly on the bricks of the pizza oven.
home Preparation:
Pre-heat oven to 425 deg To prepare pizza dough, stir whole wheat flour; lightly spoon into a measuring cup and level flour.
In large mixing bowl, combine whole wheat flour, yeast and salt. Blend in water, oil and honey or sugar. Stir by hand vigorously until all ingredients are well mixed;
about 3 minutes. Cover with plastic wrap and let rise to desired size.
Place dough in greased 15 x 10 x 1-inch jelly-roll pan or 12 to 14-inch pizza pan. Press dough to cover bottom of pan and up sides to form a rim.

•2 cups whole wheat flour
•1 package active dry yeast or instant yeast
•3/4 tsp salt
•1 cup hot water
•1 tbsp vegetable oil,or extra virgin olive oil
•1 tbsp honey or sugar

Traditional pizza dough tossing
The bottom of the pizza, called the “crust”, may vary widely according to style—thin as in a typical hand-tossed pizza, screen, thin, or Roman pizza,
or thick as in a typical pan pizza or deep like a Chicago-style pizza. It is traditionally plain, but may also be seasoned with garlic or herbs, or stuffed with cheese.
Whichever restaurant chosen, there are typically a few options of crust to chose from. The outer edge of the pizza is sometimes referred to as the cornicione.
Often, the pizza crust contains sugar to help with the yeast rising as well as the browning of the dough.

Pizza cheese

The original pizza used only mozzarella, the highest quality ones the buffalo mozzarella variant, produced in the surroundings of Naples.
Other kinds of cheese may be used for creative alternative recipes (provolone, pecorino romano, ricotta, scamorza and many others),
including processed cheeses for mass-market pizzas manufactured to produce desirable qualities like browning, melting, stretchiness and fat and moisture content.
Many studies and experiments have analyzed the impact of vegetable oil, manufacturing and culture processes, denatured whey proteins and other changes
to creating the ideal and economical pizza cheese.
In 1997 it was estimated that annual production of pizza cheese was 2 billion pounds in the U.S. and 200 million pounds in Europe.

used on pizzas, including, but not limited to:
Chili peppers
Sun-dried tomato
Feta cheese

Other types of Lazio-style pizza include:
Pizza romana: tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil
Pizza viennese: tomato, mozzarella, German sausage, oregano, oil
Pizza capricciosa: mozzarella, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, cooked ham, olives, oil
Pizza quattro formaggi: tomatoes, and the cheeses mozzarella, stracchino, fontina and gorgonzola. Sometimes ricotta is swapped for one of the latter three.
Pizza bianca : In Rome, the term pizza bianca refers to a type of bread topped with olive oil, salt and, occasionally herbs, such as rosemary sprigs.
It is also a Roman style to add figs to the pizza, the result being known as pizza e fichi.
Pizza alla casalinga: (“Grandma pizza”) consists of a thin layer of dough which is stretched into an oiled, square “Sicilian” pan,
topped sparingly with shredded mozzarella, crushed uncooked canned tomatoes, chopped garlic andolive oil, and baked until the top bubbles and the bottom is crisp

Traditional Sicilian pizza is often thick crusted and rectangular,
It is often topped with onions, anchovies, tomatoes, herbs, and strong cheese such as Caciocavallo and Toma.
Other versions do not include cheese. The Sicilian methods of making pizza are linked to local culture and country traditions,[5] so there are differences in preparing pizza even among the Sicilian regions of Palermo, Catania, Siracusa and Messina.

The Sfincione originated in the province of Palermo. Unlike the more familiar Neapolitan pizza, it is typically rectangular, with more dough, sauce and cheese.
An authentic recipe often calls for herbs, onion, tomato sauce, strong cheese, and anchovies. The sauce is sometimes placed on top of the toppings to prevent it from soaking into the thick dough.
In the province of Siracusa, especially in Solarino and Sortino, the Pizzòlu is a kind of round stuffed pizza.
In the province of Catania the traditional Scacciata is made in two different ways:
a first layer made of dough covered, within the city, by a local cheese (Tuma) and anchovies or,
by potatoes, sausages, broccoli, and tomato sauce.
In both cases a second layer of dough brushed with eggs covers everything.
Also in the region of Catania, in Zafferana Etnea and in Viagrande a typical pizza siciliana is a fried calzone stuffed with cheese and anchovies.
In the province of Messina, the traditional Piduni is a kind of calzone stuffed with endive, tuma cheese, tomato and anchovies.
There is also the Focaccia alla messinese, prepared with tomato sauce, tuma cheese, vegetables and anchovies.

A survey from 2004 showed that Norwegians eat the most pizza (5.4 kg/person*year), followed by Germans.
Canada: was first introduced to pizza in the late 1950s, with the arrival of the first pizza ovens entering the country.Some of Canada’s highly reputable and successful Pizza brand Boston Pizza,
also known as BP’s in Canada and Boston’s the Gourmet pizza in the United States and Mexico, is one of Canada’s largest franchising restaurants
Australia: Italian varieties are available, though more common is the style popular in the U.S., with more and richer toppings than Italian style.
A common unique type is the Aussie, Australian or Australiana which has the usual tomato sauce base and mozzarella cheese with bacon and egg
Pizzas with seafood such as prawns are also popular. In the 1980s some Australian pizza shops and restaurants began selling “gourmet pizzas”,
that is, pizzas with more expensive ingredients such as salmon, dill, bocconcini, tiger prawns, or unconventional toppings such as kangaroo, emu and crocodile.
“Wood-fired pizzas”, that is, those cooked in a ceramic oven heated by wood fuel, are well-regarded.

Bangladesh:Home-made Pizza in Bangladesh
a popular fast food in Bangladeshi urban areas. Introduction of various branded pizza such as Domino’s and Pizza Hut in early to mid-2000s,
it has reached almost all classes of urban peoples.
Brazil:Pizza made using Chocolate, served as a dessert at a restaurant in Brazil
São Paulo has 6,000 pizza establishments and 1.4 million pizzas are consumed daily.
It is said that the first Brazilian pizzas were baked in the Brás district of São Paulo in the early part of the 20th century.
Until the 1950s, they were only found in the Italian communities. Since then, pizza became increasingly popular among the rest of the population.
though, tends to have less tomato sauce than the Italian version, or uses slices of tomato in place of sauce.
Brazilian pizzerias offer also Brazilian variants such as “pizza com catupiry”.
July 10 is “Pizza Day” in São Paulo, marking the final day of an annual competition among “pizzaiolos”.
In Brazil, pizza quatro queijos (pizza quattro formaggi) uses mozzarella, provolone, parmesan and gorgonzola, and there is also a variety with five cheeses,
which adds catupiry.
India:Pizza is an emerging fast food in Indian urban areas. American pizza chains opened their first outlets in India in 1996.
pizza is available in most cities in India.
Pizzas served in India Indian pizzas are generally spicier and more veggie-oriented, For instance, oregano spice packs are included with a typical pizza order
instead of Parmesan cheese.
several Indian-style toppings like Tandoori Chicken and Paneer. Pizzas available in India range from localized basic variants available in neighborhood bakeries,
to gourmet pizzas with exotic and imported ingredients available at specialty restaurants.
Israel:Pizza with corn and za’atar in Kfar Saba, Israel
Many Israeli and American pizza stores and chains, including Pizza Hut and Sbarro, have both kosher and non-kosher locations.
Kosher locations either have no meat or use imitation meat because of the Jewish religious dietary prohibition against mixing meat with dairy products,
Kosher pizza locations must also close during the holiday of Passover, when no leavened bread is allowed in kosher locations.
Some Israeli pizza differs from pizza in other countries because of the very large portions of vegetable toppings such as mushrooms or onions,
and some unusual toppings, like corn or labane, and middle-Eastern spices, such as za’atar. Like most foods in Israel, pizza choices reflect multiple cultures.
Japan:American pizza chains entered Japan in the 1970s. The largest Japanese pizza chain is Pizza-La. Local types of pizza are popular, with many using mayonnaise sauces,
and sometimes other ingredients such as corn, potatoes, avocado, eel, or even honey or chocolate (as in dessert).
“Side orders” also often include items such as french fries, fried chicken, baked pasta, as well as vegetable soups, green salads, desserts, and soda or
Japanese tea. There is also a strong connection to using Tabasco sauce on cooked pizzas.
Local crust variants also exist, for instance mochi pizza (crust made with Japanese mochi cakes).
The Italian association Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana also has an independent branch in Japan.
Korea:Pizza is a popular snack food in South Korea, especially among younger people. Major American brands compete against domestic brands such as Mr. Pizza and Pizza Etang,
offering traditional as well as local varieties which may include toppings such as bulgogi and dak galbi.
Korean-style pizza tends to be complicated, and often has nontraditional toppings such as corn, potato wedges, sweet potato, shrimp, or crab.
The super-deluxe “Grand Prix” at Mr. Pizza has Cajun shrimp, bell peppers, olives, and mushrooms on one side, and potato wedges, bacon, crushed tortilla chips, and
sour cream on the other side. Its potato mousse-filled cookie dough crust is sprinkled with sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and raisins,
and can be dipped in a blueberry sauce that is provided.
many Italian restaurants in Seoul and other major cities. North Korea’s first pizzeria opened in its capital Pyongyang in 2009
Mexico: The Mexican pizza is not Mexican in origin, but is a regionally modified cuisine of Italian pizza. This type of pizza is called “Mexicana” by adding Mexican toppings.
The usual toppings that can be found throughout Mexico are chorizo, jalapeño pepper slices, grilled or fried onions, tomato, chile, hominy, shrimp, avocado,
and sometimes beef, bell peppers, tripas or scallop. This pizza has the usual marinara sauce or white sauce and mozzarella cheese.
Variations, substituting pepper jack cheese or Oaxaca cheese for mozzarella, are also popular.
A Mexican pizza is offered by Taco Bell fast food restaurant in most locations in North America.
Nepal: popular as a fast food in the urban areas of Nepal, particularly in the capital city, Kathmandu. There are a number of restaurants that serve pizzas in Kathmandu.
With the opening of a number of international pizza brands, the popularity as well as consumption has markedly increased in recent times.
Norway:The Norwegians eat most pizza in the world 50 million frozen pizzas a year, with consumption being 22,000 tons of frozen pizza, 15,000 tons of home-baked and
13,000 tons of restaurant-made pizzas.
Pakistan:The first pizzerias opened up in Karachi and Islamabad in the late 1980s, with Pappasallis serving pizza in Islamabad since 1990.
Pizza has gained a measure of popularity in the eastern regions of Pakistan—namely, the provinces of Sindh, Punjab, and Azad Kashmir,
as well as the autonomous territory of Gilgit-Baltistan.
Pizza has not penetrated into western Pakistan; of the remaining provinces and territories of Pakistan, only one (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) has seen much of the dish,
in the form of a single Pizza Hut in Peshawar.
In the regions where pizza is known, spicy chicken and sausage-based pizzas are very popular, as they cater to the local palate.
Sweden:Pizza arrived in Sweden with Italian guest workers and became popular around 1970. Swedish pizza is mainly of the Neapolitan type and most pizzerias in Sweden
have pizzas Margherita, Capricciosa and Quattro Stagioni at the top of the menu, although with altered recipes.
For example, a Swedish Margherita uses Swedish hard cheese instead of mozzarella and dried oregano instead of fresh basil.
The Swedish pizza has been developed with lots of inventions and styles, creating a tradition distinct from the Italian one,
although some names may coincide. Occasionally pizzerias offer “Italian pizza” imitating Italian recipes in addition to the Swedish ones.
A typical Swedish pizzeria offers 40-50 different named varieties in the menu, even up to 100, and personal modifications are offered.
Besides, many pizzerias also serve salads, lasagne, kebab and hamburgers, especially if there is a facility to sit and eat.
Italian style restaurants often combine a restaurant menu with a pizza menu.
Some popular varieties common in most of Sweden, mostly with the same name, all having tomato sauce and cheese to start with and additional toppings:
Capricciosa: mushrooms, ham
Quattro Stagioni: ham, shrimps, (mussels), mushrooms, artichoke
Vegetariana: mushrooms, onion, (pineapple), (artichoke), (asparagus), (paprika)
Marinara: shrimps, mussels
Frutti di mare: tuna, shrimps, mussels
Napolitana: anchovies, olives, capers
Hawaii: ham, pineapple
Ciao-ciao (folded): beef, garlic, (onion)
Calzone (folded): ham
Bolognese: minced meat, onion, (fresh tomato)
Africana: ham/beef/chicken, banana, pineapple, onion, curry powder
Kebabpizza: döner kebab, onion, green peperoncini, (kebab sauce poured over after baking)
Mexicana: various recipes with minced beef, jalapeños, onion, spicy sauce and other hot ingredients
Varieties with filet of beef or pork and sauce béarnaise and onion
One of the most popular types of pizza in Sweden since the 1990s is kebab-pizza, and a song in the Swedish Eurovision song contest 2008 was “Kebabpizza slivovitza”.
The invention ought to be a result of the common tendency of pizza bakers to create their own flagship compositions and novel flavors,
using whatever might be available in their kitchen. Since the last years one can find pizza with fresh lettuce or chips (French fries) put on top after baking.
The amount of topping compared to the crust is rather high in international comparison.
The typical side order with Swedish pizza is a free “pizza salad”, made with shredded cabbage, coarse pepper and sometimes red paprika, slightly pickled (fermented)
in vinaigrette for a few days.
In general, Swedish pizzerias are private enterprises and not franchise, often owned as a family business by immigrants, but very seldom Italians.
Russia — mockba (a combination of sardines, tuna, mackerel, salmon, and onions), red herring
France — flambée (bacon, onion, fresh cream)
Costa Rica — coconut
Netherlands — “Double Dutch” — double meat, double cheese, double onion

stuffed crust conspiracy: evidence exsibit 1:
Patent US4661361 – Forming closed pockets on dough base for variety of fillings
Publication number US4661361 A
Publication type Grant
Application number US 06/624,190
Publication date Apr 28, 1987
Filing date Jun 25, 1984
Priority date Jun 25, 1984
Fee status Paid

Inventors Anthony T. Mongiello, Lawrence A. Mongiello, Sr., Angelo A. Mongiello, Sr.
Original Assignee Mongiello Anthony T, Mongiello Sr Lawrence A, Mongiello Sr Angelo A
Export Citation BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Patent Citations (11), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (24), Classifications (11), Legal Events (4)

Forming closed pockets on dough base for variety of fillings
US 4661361 A




A pizza shell and a method for forming pizza shells. The pizza shell comprises a dough base, a plurality of closed pockets uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the base, and a plurality of food portions held within those closed pockets. To form the pizza shell, a flat dough base is formed, a plurality of food portions are placed on the dough base, the food portions are covered, and a plurality of closed pockets are formed to enclose each food portion within a separate closed pocket. The pizza shell is then used in a conventional manner to make a pizza pie.

We claim:

1. A method of making a pizza comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a generally flat dough base;

(b) placing a plurality of separated individual food portions on the dough base such that, when the dough base is cut into substantially equalily sized portions, each individual food portion is located upon a portion of each piece;

(c) covering each food portion with an unbaked dough section of sufficient dimensions to cover said food portion thereby forming a separate closed pocket about each food portion;

(d) covering the portions of the dough base which are not covered by said closed pockets with a layer of tomato sauce and cheese to form an unbaked pizza product; and

(e) baking the unbaked product to obtain a pizza.

2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the placing step includes the step of uniformly locating the individual food portions upon the dough base.

3. A method according to claim 1 wherein:
(a) the placing step further includes the step of locating the individual food portions adjacent an outside perimeter of the dough base;

(b) the covering step includes the step of folding an outside peripheral strip of the dough base over the food portions; and

(c) the step of forming a plurality of closed pockets includes the steps of
(i) pinching an edge of the peripheral strip to the dough base, and

(ii) pinching to the dough base areas of the peripheral strip between the food portions.

4. A method according to claim 1 wherein:
(a) the covering step includes the step of covering the food portions with unbaked dough sections which are separate from the dough base; and

(b) the step of forming a plurality of closed pockets includes the step of pinching areas of the dough sections to the dough base.

5. A method according to claim 4 wherein the dough sections comprise a single continuous strip of dough.

6. A method according to claim 4 wherein the dough sections comprise a plurality of separate pieces of dough.

7. A method according to claim 1 wherein the placing step includes the steps of:
(a) placing template means having a plurality of openings on the dough base; and

(b) placing the individual food portions on the dough base through the template openings.

8. A method according to claim 7 wherein the template openings are uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the template.

9. A method according to claim 1 wherein the covering step further comprises the steps of placing a pinching apparatus having a plurality of bars forming a framework upon said dough base; and pressing the pinching apparatus onto the dough sections covering the food portions to join the dough sections to the dough base.

10. A method according to claim 1 wherein the layer of tomato sauce and cheese further comprises a topping.

11. A method of making a pizza comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a generally flat dough base;

(b) forming a plurality of closed pockets each pocket enclosing a portion of food;

(c) placing the closed pockets on portions of the dough base;

(d) covering portions of the dough base which are not covered by said closed pockets with a layer of tomato sauce and cheese to form an unbaked pizza product; and

(e) baking the unbaked product to obtain a pizza.

12. A method according to claim 11 wherein the placing step includes the step of uniformly distributing the pockets about at least a portion of the base.

13. A method according to claim 11 wherein the layer of tomato sauce and cheese further comprises a topping.

14. A method of making a pizza product comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a generally flat dough base;

(b) placing template means having a plurality of openings upon the dough base;

(c) placing individual food portions upon the dough base through the template openings;

(d) removing the template means;

(e) forming a plurality of closed pockets around each individual food portion upon the dough base with dough; and

(f) covering the areas on the dough base which are not covered by the closed pockets with a layer comprising tomato sauce and cheese to form an unbaked pizza product.

15. The method of claim 14 further comprising baking the unbaked pizza product to obtain a pizza.


This invention generally relates to pizzas, and more specifically to pizza shells and to methods of making pizza shells.

The conventional pizza pie comprises a dough base formed into a generally flat, circular or rectangular shell and covered with a sauce and a topping. Normally, the dough is a bread dough, the sauce is a tomato sauce, and the topping includes cheese and often also includes other foods such as pieces of pepperoni or anchovies. An outer edge crust is formed around the perimeter of the dough base to hold the sauce and the topping on the base as the pie is made. The pie is then baked in an oven, cut, and eaten.

Pizza is a very popular food. Nevertheless, the conventional pizza pie does have several disadvantages. For example, many people do not like to eat the baked outer crust of a pizza and often they simply throw that crust away. In addition, usually only a relatively limited number of food products are used with pizzas. Another disadvantage of pizzas of the general type described above is that the amount of the topping provided with individual pizzas normally is also within a relatively narrow range. Pizzas do not have the same flexibility as sandwiches have, for example, with respect to the range of different food products or the quantity of food products that are normally used with pizzas.
The present invention is a pizza shell and a method of making a pizza shell. The shell comprises a dough base, a plurality of closed pockets uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the base, and a plurality of food portions held within those closed pockets. The shell is made by forming a generally flat dough base, placing a plurality of food portions on that base, covering the food portions, and forming a plurality of closed pockets to enclose each food portion within a separate closed pocket.

An extremely wide range of foods such as meats, meatballs, creams, fruit fillings, eggs, or vegetables may be located in the closed pockets. Thus, with the present invention it is very simple to provide a pizza that satisfies an appetite or a hunger for a plurality of different types of foods. In addition, the size of the closed pockets and the amount of food located in individual pockets may vary over a very wide range. As a result, pizzas, or even a single pizza, employing the present invention may be used to satisfy widely varying appetites. Moreover, because the closed pockets are uniformly distributed about at least a portion of the base of the pizza shell, those pockets facilitate cutting that portion into a plurality of substantially equally sized pieces with one pocket on each piece.
FIG. 1 is a top view of a pizza shell in accordance with this invention.

FIGS. 2 and 3 are sectional views taken along lines II–II and III–III of FIG. 1 respectively.

FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 are top views of three alternate embodiments of the present invention.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show the pizza shells of FIGS. 1 and 4 respectively during formation of those shells.

FIG. 9 shows a pinching mechanism and FIG. 10 shows a template that are used to make the pizza shell shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken along line XI–XI of FIG. 10.
FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 show pizza shell 100 generally comprising dough base 102, a plurality of closed pockets 104, and a plurality of food portions 106. Any suitable dough, for instance a conventional bread dough, may be used as base 102. Base 102 is generally flat, and as shown in FIG. 1, the base has a generally circular shape. Pockets 104 are uniformly distributed over at least a portion of base 102 so that this portion of the base may be cut into a plurality of equally sized pieces with each such piece having one closed pocket thereon.

With the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 1, the means that form pockets 104 extend substantially continuously around the entire perimeter of base 102. In this way, pockets 104 also form an outer raised rim or crust of pizza shell 100 to hold sauce and toppings on the inside surface of base 102 during preparation and cooking of a pizza pie having shell 100. Alternately, it should be noted, the means that form pockets 104 may extend along only a portion of the perimeter of base 102, for example a half or a quarter of that perimeter. In both cases, preferably the means that form pockets 104, first, has a length substantially longer than its width, and second, longitudinally extends along the perimeter of base 102.

Food portions 106 include foods different from dough base 102 and are held within pockets 106. An extremely wide range of foods may be located in pockets 104. For instance, food portions 106 may include cheeses, creams, fruit fillings, eggs, vegetables, or meats such as pepperoni, sausage, or meatballs. The different food portions 106 of a pizza shell 100 may consist of different foods. For instance, one food portion of a particular pizza shell 100 may consist of eggs, while another food portion of the same pizza shell may consist of meatballs. Moreover, the size of pockets 104 and the amount of food in individual pockets may also vary widely, even on the same pizza shell. For example, a single pizza shell 100 may be formed with one large pocket having a large amount of food, such as four or five meatballs, and with one small pocket having a much smaller amount of food, such as one meatball or a half a meatball. Thus, the present invention provides an individual with a very high degree of flexibility to prepare a pizza pie that will satisfy a number of appetites for different types and quantities of food.

It should be noted that pizza shells in accordance with the present invention may include bases with shapes other than as shown in FIG. 1, and that the closed pockets of the shells may be positioned about or over the base in a number of different patterns. For example, FIG. 4 shows pizza shell 110 also having a generally flat, round base 112 but where closed pockets 114 are located between the circumference and center of the base, substantially equally spaced apart in an annular direction. FIG. 5 illustrates pizza shell 120 having a generally rectangular or square dough base 122, with a plurality of closed pockets 124 extending along opposite edges of the base. FIG. 6 illustrates pizza shell 130 also having a generally rectangular or square base 132, and a plurality of closed pockets 134 uniformly distributed over the surface area of that base.

One particular advantage of the pizza shells shown in FIGS. 1 and 5 is that those shells advantageously employ a part of the shell that is often simply discarded–the outer peripheral crust–to form the pizza pockets and thereby to increase the taste and appeal of pizza pies made from those shells.

With all the preferred embodiments of the pizza shells discussed above, the ends of the pizza pockets are pinched downward to the bases of the shells. These pinched ends of the pockets facilitate cutting the pizza shells into a plurality of equally sized pieces, by providing a visual guide as to where the pizza shells should be cut to accomplish this. This feature of the present invention is especially pronounced with the embodiments of the pizza shells illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 5.

In particular, with pizza shell 100 shown in FIG. 1, the means that forms pockets 104 also forms pocket ends 108, which are substantially equally spaced apart along the perimeter of base 102, between each adjacent pair of pockets 104. By cutting pizza shell 100 along radii extending through pocket ends 108, the pizza shell can be cut into eight equally sized pieces, with each piece having one closed pocket thereon. As will be appreciated by those knowledgeable in the art, if the means that form pockets 104 extends along only a portion of the perimeter of base 102, pocket ends 108 may be substantially equally spaced apart along that portion of the perimeter of the base, and thus help to cut at least a part of shell 100 into a plurality of equally sized pieces.

With reference to FIG. 5, the means that forms pockets 124 also forms pocket ends 128. A first group of pocket ends are substantially equally spaced apart along a first edge of base 122, between adjacent pairs of pockets 124 on that edge of the base; and a second group of pocket ends are substantially equally spaced apart along a second, opposite edge of base 122, between adjacent pairs of pockets 124 on that edge of the base. By cutting pizza shell 120 along lines extending between opposing ends of opposite pockets 124, pizza shell 120 is divided into three sections. Then by cutting each of these sections in half across the width of those sections, pizza shell 120 is cut into six equally sized pieces, with each piece having one closed pocket 124 thereon. Cutting the pizza shells 100 and 120 into a plurality of pieces without cutting through the interior of pockets 104 or 124 insures that any food or filling in those pockets does not accidentally spill from those pockets as the individual pizza pieces are cut and handled.

Generally, pizza shell 100 is made by forming a flat dough base 102, placing a plurality of food portions 106 on this base, covering the food portions, and then forming closed pockets 104 to enclose those food portions. This general method may be accomplished in a number of specific ways.

For example, with reference to FIG. 7, food portions 106 may be located adjacent and slightly spaced from the outside perimeter of base 102, and then an outer peripheral strip of the dough base may be folded inward and over the food portions, toward the center of the base. The inside circumferential edge of this strip and portions of the strip between adjacent food portions are then pinched to base 102 to form closed pockets enclosing food portions 106.

As an alternate method, with reference now to FIG. 8, the food portions are placed on the dough base, and then one or more pieces of dough, initially separate from the dough base, are placed over those food portions and outside edges of those cover pieces are pinched to the dough base to form a plurality of closed pockets. This method is especially well suited to form the pizza shells having closed pockets that are not closely located adjacent an outside edge of the dough base, for example pizza shell 110 shown in FIG. 4 or pizza shell 130 shown in FIG. 6.

With both of the above-described methods, a pinching mechanism comprising an appropriately shaped grid of rods or bars may be used to pinch to the dough base the material that covers the food portions. One such framework 150, specifically designed to help make pizza shell 100 of FIG. 1, is shown in FIG. 9. Framework 150 comprises outer ring 152, inner ring 154, and a plurality of diametrically extending bars or rods 156. Outer ring has a diameter substantially equal to the outer diameter of pizza shell 100, and inner ring 152 has a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the circle formed by the inside perimeter of pockets 104. Rods 154 extend along radii of the circles formed by rings 152 and 154 and are angularly equally spaced around those circles. In use, after food portions 106 are covered with material, framework 150 is pressed onto shell 100 so that bars 156 pinch to base 102 areas of that food cover material that are between adjacent pairs of food portions 106. With modifications well within the purview of those of ordinary skill in the art, alternate frameworks may be designed for use with other pizza shells constructed in accordance with this invention.

Preferably, it should be observed, the food portions of the pizza shells are covered with the same dough that is used to form the base of those shells. However, a dough having a consistency or texture different from the consistency and texture of the dough base, or having additional food materials mixed in the dough base, may be used to cover the food portions. Also, a plurality of closed pockets, with food portions enclosed therein, may be formed separately from the dough base and then placed thereon. Depending on the specific food or foods comprising the food portions, it may further be desirable to form small vent openings in the sides of the closed pockets, for example by punching those sides with the prongs of a fork, to allow steam or other vapors to escape from those closed pockets during baking of the pizza shell.

Moreover, with both of the specific methods disclosed above, a template may be used to locate the food portions of the pizza shells in the preferred position. FIGS. 10 and 11 show one template 160 that may be used in the practice of this invention, and that, in particular, is used to make pizza shell 100 of FIG. 1. Template 160 comprises a substantially flat metal plate 162 having a plurality of openings 164 formed therein. In use, template 160 is placed on dough base 102 after that base has been formed into a flat shape. Then food portions 106 are placed on the dough base, through openings 164. As shown in FIG. 11, the edges of openings 164 may be turned up to help form and hold food portions 106 in a small lump or pile on dough base 102. As will be apparent to those skilled in the art, template 160 is removed prior to covering food portions 106.

Once formed, the pizza shells described above may be used to make pizza pies in a conventional manner. That is, a tomato sauce is poured or ladled onto the base of the shell and then covered or sprinkled with cheese. Additional foods such as sausage or pepperoni may be placed on the shell. Then the pizza pie is baked in a conventional manner.

While it is apparent that the invention disclosed herein is well calculated to fulfill the objects stated above, it will be appreciated that numerous modifications and embodiments may be devised by those skilled in the art, and it is intended that the appended claims cover all such modifications and embodiments as fall within the true spirit and scope of the present invention.

Patent Citations

Cited Patent

Filing date

Publication date



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* Cited by examiner

Non-Patent Citations


1 * DeVecchio, Italian Cookbook, Lane Books, Calif., 1975, p. 38.
2 * Tighe, Woman s Day Encyclopedia of Cookery, Fawcett Pub., Inc., N.Y., 1966, p. 1879.
3 Tighe, Woman’s Day Encyclopedia of Cookery, Fawcett Pub., Inc., N.Y., 1966, p. 1879.

* Cited by examiner

Referenced by

US4938975 * Sep 6, 1988 Jul 3, 1990 Roland Waller Food product and method of making same
US5185167 * Apr 6, 1990 Feb 9, 1993 Janet Schwartz Placing edible filling in center of dough rectangle, folding to enclose, pressing to secure, refrigerating, dipping in caustic soda solution, baking
US5312633 * Feb 5, 1993 May 17, 1994 Janet Schwartz Method of making a stuffed pretzel dough product and completed stuffed pretzel product
US5756137 * Dec 22, 1995 May 26, 1998 Little Caesar Enterprise, Inc. Sealing dough to cover filling; controlling fat content of filling ingredient to eliminate breaking of seals; baking
US5780082 * Sep 3, 1996 Jul 14, 1998 Alda Services S.A. Process for making a food product of the pizza type, in the shape of a pocket
US5968570 * Apr 4, 1997 Oct 19, 1999 Paulucci; Jeno F. Dough layer shaped and seals
US6126977 * Nov 6, 1997 Oct 3, 2000 Jeno F. Paulucci Multilayer laminated pizza crust made of dough sheets that heve ben stretched, folded, punctured and cutting then baking
US6168812 Apr 29, 1997 Jan 2, 2001 Jeno F. Paulucci Microwavable semi-circular pizza product and packaging combination
US6203828 * Dec 3, 1999 Mar 20, 2001 Rich Seapak Corporation Method for forming a filled dough product
US6327968 Mar 17, 2000 Dec 11, 2001 Pizza Hut, Inc. System and method for producing par-baked pizza crusts
US6355293 * Dec 3, 1999 Mar 12, 2002 Rich Sea-Pak Corporation Forming a plurality of filling segments onto a continuous sheet of dough; continuously folding the continuous sheet of dough to cover the plurality of filling segments to form a dough shell; encapsulating; separating a trailing end
US6479087 * Sep 14, 2000 Nov 12, 2002 Kraft Foods Holdings, Inc. Cheese depositing method
US6753025 Sep 21, 1998 Jun 22, 2004 Eugene R. Tippmann Method of making pizza
US6843167 Mar 30, 2000 Jan 18, 2005 Pizza Hut, Inc. System and method for producing par-baked pizza crusts
US7036427 * Nov 14, 2002 May 2, 2006 Les Aliments T & N Foods Inc. Rising crust manufacturing apparatus
US7332187 May 1, 2003 Feb 19, 2008 Schwan’s Food Manufacturing, Inc. a substantially symmetrical segmented array of three or more attached portions, containing an edible envelope and one or more layers of filling, each portion defined by a means to separate one portion from an adjacent portion; food can be uncooked, par-fried, par-baked, baked, fried, etc.
US7610837 Apr 21, 2005 Nov 3, 2009 Pizza Hut, Inc. Systems and methods for making a pizza pie having an outer cheese portion
US7823489 * Sep 10, 2009 Nov 2, 2010 Pizza Hut, Inc. Systems and methods for making a pizza pie having an outer cheese portion
US7914836 * Apr 17, 2006 Mar 29, 2011 Pizza Hut, Inc. Pizza with segmented crust
US7923048 Apr 17, 2006 Apr 12, 2011 Pizza Hut, Inc. Segmented pizza crust system
WO2002021927A1 * Sep 11, 2001 Mar 21, 2002 Mark Deraud A method of configuring a slice of a pizza-type pie and an apparatus for preparing a pizza-type pie
WO2004098322A2 * Apr 29, 2004 Nov 18, 2004 Schwan S Food Mfg Inc Food product comprising individual portions in a segmented structure
WO2006115481A1 * Apr 22, 2005 Nov 2, 2006 Pizza Hut Inc Pizza pie having an inner cheese portion contained within the outer crust portion
WO2014022606A1 * Aug 1, 2013 Feb 6, 2014 Findlay Michael C System for applying patterned crust segments to dough

* Cited by examiner

U.S. Classification 426/283, 426/302, 426/297, 426/502, 426/94
International Classification A21C11/00, A21D13/00
Cooperative Classification A21D13/007, A21C11/00
European Classification A21D13/00H2, A21C11/00

pizza fun Facts …
October is National Pizza Month.
Mozzarella cheese was originally made from the milk of water buffalo!
how many pizzas are sold worldwide per year? 5 billion

Pizza History Timeline
• 1st millennium BC – Archeologist in Sardinia found ancient remains of a flattened bread that was apparently very popular among local population.
• 6th Century B.C – Writings of the conquests of Darius the Great (521-486 B.C.) mention that his soldiers baked a kind of bread flat upon their shields and then covered it with cheese and dates. This is possibly the earliest mentioning of pizza.
• 3rd Century B.C. – Famous Roman historian Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C.) mentioned in his memoirs about “flat round of dough dressed with olive oil, herbs, and honey baked on stones.”
• 1st Century B.C. – Roman poet Virgil described in one of his famous poems “The Aeneid” a cakes or circles of bread that resemble pizza.
• 1st Century B.C . – Excavations made in Pompeii under the mountain and volcano Vesuvius that prove the existence of pizzas that were common in that part of Italy. People of Pompeii and nearby Naples often eat such meals, and in the ruins of Pompeii archeologist even found entire untouched workshops, shops, and tools of the trade that are used for selling and production of pizzas.
• 1522 – After tomatoes were first imported to the Europe from the New World, people of Naples first managed to combine them with their bread products, thus creating the earliest form of modern pizza. As was Naples one of the centers of the Italy food production and a busy port full of sailors, the word of mouth about this new dish spread across the Europe.
• 17th Century – Pizza created in Naples gained great popularity among its citizens and tourists who visited that area of Italy.
• 18th Century – Wife of King of Naples, Queen Maria Carolina d’Asburgo Lorena (1752-1814) had in her palace special oven that was used for making pizzas.
• 1830 – Antica Pizzeria Port’Alba, the first ever modern pizzeria opened in Naples.
• 1889 – By the orders of Umberto I King of Italy and his wife Queen Margherita di Savoia, the most famous Naples pizza chef Raffaele Esposito created for them three pizzas. After the King and Queen expressed their immense satisfaction for his work, Naples became firmly the center of Pizza world, and designs of Raffaele Esposito became standard for all future pizzas.
• 19th Century – By the end of 19th century, citizens of Naples consumed pizza for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The manufacturing of pizzas gained much advancement, especially use of various toppings. Pizza was sold on the streets, and later on in dedicated street establishments – pizzerias.
• Early 20th century – The first Italian pizza in America was introduced in Chicago by the street peddlers who walked up and down Taylor Street and sold the hot slices of Pizzas to the pedestrians. They maintained the heat of the slices by holding them in cylindrical drums that had a compartment which was filled with hot charcoal.
• 1905 – First American license for baking pizzas granted to Gennaro Lombardiin Spring Street in New York City.
• 1910 – Famous Joe’s Tomato Pies pizzeria opens in Trenton’s Chambersburg section.
• 1912 – Papa’s Tomato Pies, one of the oldest pizzerias that is still active was opened in Trenton’s Chambersburg.
• 1924 – Famous American cook Anthony “Totonno” Pero opens his Totonno’s Pizzeria in Coney Island, N.Y.
• 1925 – Frank Pepe opened his famous Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Conn.
• 1943 – Invention of Chicago-style deep-dish pizza (with crust that rises an inch or more above the plate and surrounds deep piles of toppings) by Ike Sewell in his “Pizzeria Uno”.
• 1945 – American soldiers that returned from the World War 2 brought home their newfound taste for pizza.
1950 – Popularity of pizza rose in America after several big celebrities of Italian origin started promoting it (Jerry Colonna, Frank Sinatra, Jimmy Durante, and baseball star Joe DiMaggio).
• 1957 -The first supermarket frozen pizza was released by Celentano Brothers. Soon after that frozen pizzas became very popular across entire US.
• 1958 – Opening of the first Pizza Hut in Wichita, Kansas, which will later become worldwide franchise of pizza restaurants.
• 1959 – The first of many “Little Caesar” pizzerias opens.
• 1967 – The first Domino’s opens.
• 1984 – The first Papa John’s opens.
• 1995 -The first appearance of revolutionary “self-rising” crust was unveiled by Kraft, which purchased Tombstone in 1986.
• 2009 – European Union established ruling that protected Naples’ Neapolitan pizza as a cultural food heritage. All pizzerias that want to create real Neapolitan pizza must comply with the strict standards for ingredients and process of its preparation.

HowTo Professionally Play Well With Others

Ep 19 TheMaryJaneStyle from TheMaryJaneStyle on Vimeo.


Manners are made up of trivialities of deportment which can be easily learned if one does not happen to know them; manner is personality—the outward manifestation of one’s innate character and attitude toward life…. Etiquette must, if it is to be of more than trifling use, include ethics as well as manners.

Certainly what one is, is of far greater importance than what one appears to be. -Emily Post

! Tips and tricks ”
Initiating Contact
1. Try to have a mutual acquaintance introduce you; builds your credibility
2. Aim for an in-person conversation rather than email exchange
3. In-person is most intimate, phone is moderate, and email is least personal
4. Seek to build a two-way relationship, rather than just ask for things

Email, voicemail, thank you notes
1. Keep emails brief; bullets are great for busy professionals; limit formatting since many professionals read emails on Blackberries (which destroys formatting)
2. Proof-read messages; spelling errors are a bad first impression
3. Be sure your contact information is included in every message
4. In voicemail, state your name clearly, reason for calling, what you would like the recipient to do, and how the action with benefit both parties
5. Send thank you notes with in 48 hours; write neatly on simple stationary, refer to specifics – an idea, conversation, or gift

Networking basics
1. Shake hands firmly; introduce yourself to most senior person in a group
2. Wear nametags on the right (when you extend to shake with right hand, it’s natural to look at the right side of their body.)
3. Introduce your acquaintances with thoughtful details
4. In conversation, listen more than speak; remember and use the speaker’s name
5. Focus on conversation; avoid wandering eyes or looking at guests or cell phone
6. Make a crisp but polite conclusion: “It has been a pleasure speaking with you.”
1. Always show up on time, minimize distractions (computers, Blackberries)
2. Prepare materials beforehand 3. When leading a meeting: distribute an agenda, balance airtime (let everyone participate), conclude with clear to-dos and deadlines

Public address introductions
1. Never “wing” an introduction; request a biography of the speaker before hand. Good delivery of introduction is the best way to demonstrate your respect and appreciation.
2. If you tailor the introduction, review it with the speaker
3. Avoid humor, unless you are a) funny, b) situation calls for it, c) all will be comfortable
4. Avoid modesty; you are the speaker’s best chance to build credibility while maintaining humility. Share all the relevant accomplishments; make the audience want to listen!

Senior Presence
What is senior presence?
1. Some people in a room appear to be senior: they are mature, professional, responsible, authoritative (you can just tell they’re important)
2. Easy to identify by subtle signs
3. People who appear senior get more opportunities
4. Young professionals can learn to appear senior

Tips for senior presence
1. Appearance: Dress like the most senior person you regularly see, maintain good posture, smile easily, but not too often
2. Persona: Observe proper etiquette, maintain eye contact, don’t be afraid to disagree (confront difficult questions directly), and appear calm and controlled. Poise and maturity are displayed by not following the crowd meekly; share your idea if it’s contrary.
3. When speaking: Be clear and concise, avoid fillers (um, like), set the context for audience, use analogies and analysis, prepare a speech beforehand

Now HowTo NOT…
Snapshot 4 (3-19-2014 2-40 AM)

1. Pushing in front of people
This indicates that you think your time is more important than other people. This is ultimately important in a live event ,show, or a public photo situation Don’t Block or Pull Focus This also counts on the road, on pavements, at the supermarket and in lines at the checkout. Letting others go ahead of you makes them feel special and that you are a person who cares. It’s such a little courtesy to extend to someone, and yet in today’s’ culture we are often made to feel that if we don’t trample over others, we’ll never get ahead. This is simply not true. Letting someone go ahead of you is a free way to make yourself feel great. Give it a try. Your heart will glow.

2. Being impatient
When things take longer than expected, some get angry. Sometimes we just have to wait for things to go our way, and sometimes the things we are waiting for never arrive. Never Rush a planned performance or talk down to cast members. some find this very hard to do, but when you are getting impatient, it pays to breathe deeply, relax your shoulders and concentrate on the internal emotions you are feeling inside, and try to let them wash over you like a wave, without reacting to your emotions in a negative way.

3. Talking too loudly
when others are speaking or on public transport, at cafes. in the office and I like it drives people nuts. I have a loud, clear voice that can be heard even when I am not yelling. I need to make more of an effort to respect the space of those in my general vicinity. No one wants to hear everything I have to say, despite the fact that I find myself so interesting.

4. Forgetting to say please and thank you
this piece of etiquette advice, can be forgiven every now and then, forgetting to say please and thank you. It’s one of the first things ever taught. In some situations a power play of the one in control never has to say please and thank you to remain in charge (these people have serious issues CAUTION)

5. Talking endlessly about yourself
Yes, we all need to share sometimes, but there comes a point where we have to say ‘enough is enough’. I like to talk about myself, in fact, we all do. However, it should be the other people in the room that you are trying to get to know. So shut up for once.

6. Not listening to other people
You know the friend whose eyes glaze over whenever the conversation drifts off them? These are the worst types of people to know. One of the most valuable things you can do for people is to LISTEN to them! This is more valuable than anything else, don’t you think?

7. Interrupting
Sometimes people think they just can’t seem to wait to get the point across they will talk fast in longwinded story’s hard to follow and rambling to say “LOOK AT ME” this is a good time to interrupt – I just have to interrupt what you are saying to talk over the top of you. This is simply rude and can be avoided –share a conversation is only good if everyone is sharing in a nice flow it might take practice but it shows respect friendship and that your intelligent!

The Mary Jane Style HowTo-Ep#18 Might seem silly Topic is june13,1934

YouTube Channel please subscribe !!!

The Best preparation of The Future is knowledge of The Past

Topic is June13,1934 Production Code followed by any filmmaker who would want Theatrical distribution = censorship Is there a separation of church and state… what was artistic freedom from 1934-1968… At the end of the video I added a little funny impression of not all but, a sample of possible working environment very different from Todays
The last decade or more there has been minimum censorship at least here on the internet I choose this topic due to questions or concerns on how is the internet going to be censored or monitored… this video is simply the reading of The …
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968.
It is also popularly known as the Hays Code, after Hollywood’s chief censor of the time, Will H. Hays. The Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), adopted the code in 1930, began enforcing it in 1934, and abandoned it in 1968, in favor of the subsequent MPAA film rating system.
The Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States. The office enforcing it was popularly called the Hays Office in reference to Hays, inaccurately so after 1934 when Joseph Breen took over from Hays, creating the Breen Office, which was far more rigid in censoring films than Hays had been.
Where Did this idea come from?  In 1922, after several risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder Will H. Hays to rehabilitate Hollywood’s image. Hollywood in the 1920s was expected to be somewhat corrupt, and many felt the movie industry had always been morally questionable. Political pressure was increasing, with legislators in 37 states introducing almost one hundred movie censorship bills in 1921. Hays was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), where he “defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, and negotiated treaties to cease hostilities.”
The move mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in the wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal; The New York Times even called Hays the “screen Landis”.
In 1924, Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed “The Formula” which the studios were advised to heed, and asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning on making. The Supreme Court had already decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, and while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before—such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry (NAMPI) in 1916—little had come of the efforts.

New York became the first state to take advantage of the Supreme Court’s decision by instituting a censorship board in 1921. Virginia followed suit the following year, with eight individual states having a board by the advent of sound film, But many of these were ineffectual. By the 1920s, the New York stage—a frequent source of subsequent screen material—had topless shows, performances filled with curse words, mature subject matters, and sexually suggestive dialogue. Early in the sound system conversion process, it became apparent that what might be acceptable in New York would not be so in Kansas.

In 1927, Hays suggested to studio executives that they form a committee to discuss film censorship. Irving G. Thalberg of Metro Goldwyn Mayer (MGM), Sol Wetzel of Fox, and E. H. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the “Don’ts and Be careful”, which was based on items that were challenged by local censor boards. This list consisted of eleven subjects best avoided and twenty-six to be handled very carefully. The list was approved by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and Hays created the Studio Relations Committee (SRC) to oversee its implementation. However, there was still no way to enforce tenets. The controversy surrounding film standards came to a head in 1929

In 1929, the lay Catholic Martin Quigley (editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald) and the Jesuit priest Father Daniel A. Lord created a code of standards and submitted it to the studios. The Lord was particularly concerned with the effects of sound film on children, whom he considered especially susceptible to their allure. In February 1930, several studio heads—including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)—met with Lord and Quigley. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention. It was the responsibility of the SRC (headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, a former American Red Cross Executive Secretary) to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required. On March 31, the MPPDA agreed that it would abide by the Code.

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The code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of “general principles” which mostly concerned morality.
The second was a set of “particular applications” which was an exacting list of items which could not be depicted. Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or on the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned, but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Depiction of miscegenation (i.e. marital or sexual relations between different races) was forbidden. It also stated that the notion of an “adults-only policy” would be a dubious, ineffective strategy which would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that “maturer minds may easily understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm.” If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed “the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime.”

The production code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen but also to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage—which were forbidden from being portrayed as attractive or beautiful—were to be presented in a way that would not arouse passion or make them seem permissible.
All criminal action had to be punished, and neither the crime nor the criminal could elicit sympathy from the audience, or the audience must at least be aware that such behavior is wrong, usually through “compensating moral value”.
Authority figures had to be treated with respect, and the clergy could not be portrayed as comic characters or villains. Under some circumstances, politicians, police officers, and judges could be villains, as long as it was clear that those individuals portrayed as villains were the exceptions to the rule.

The entire document was written with Catholic undertones and stated that art must be handled carefully because it could be “morally evil in its effects” and because its “deep moral significance” was unquestionable. It was initially decided to keep the Catholic influence on the Code secret. A recurring theme was “that throughout, the audience feels sure that evil is wrong and good is right”. The Code also contained an addendum commonly referred to as the Advertising Code which regulated advertising copy and imagery.
The first film the office reviewed, The Blue Angel, which was passed by Joy with no revisions, was considered indecent by a California censor. Although there were several instances where Joy negotiated cuts from films and there were indeed definite—albeit loose—constraints, a significant amount of lurid material made it to the screen. Joy had to review 500 films a year with a small staff and little power. He was more willing to work with the studios, and his creative writing skills led to his hiring at Fox. On the other hand, Wingate struggled to keep up with the flood of scripts coming in, to the point where Warner Bro.’s head of production Darryl Zanuck wrote him a letter imploring him to pick up the pace.
In 1930, the Hays office did not have the authority to order studios to remove material from a film, and instead worked by reasoning and sometimes pleading with them. Complicating matters, the appeals process ultimately put the responsibility for making the final decision in the hands of the studios.

One factor in ignoring the code was the fact that some found such censorship prudish, due to the libertine social attitudes of the 1920s and early 1930s. This was a period in which the Victorian era was sometimes ridiculed as being naïve and backward. When the Code was announced, liberal periodical The Nation attacked it.

The publication stated that if crime were never to be presented in a sympathetic light, then taken literally that would mean that “law” and “justice” would become one and the same. Therefore, events such as the Boston Tea Party could not be portrayed. If clergy must always be presented in a positive way, then hypocrisy could not be dealt with either. The Outlook agreed, and, unlike Variety, The Outlook predicted from the beginning that the Code would be difficult to enforce. The Great Depression of the 1930s led many studios to seek income by any way possible. Since films containing racy and violent content resulted in high ticket sales, it seemed reasonable to continue producing such films. Soon, the flouting of the code became an open secret. In 1931, the Hollywood Reporter mocked the code and Variety followed suit in 1933. In the same year as the Variety article, a noted screenwriter stated that “the Hays moral code is not even a joke any more; it’s just a memory.”

On June 13, 1934, an amendment to the Code was adopted which established the Production Code Administration (PCA) and required all films released on or after July 1, 1934, to obtain a certificate of approval before being released. The PCA had two offices—one in Hollywood and the other in New York City. The first film to receive an MPPDA seal of approval was The World Moves On. For more than thirty years, virtually all motion pictures produced in the United States adhered to the code. The Production Code was not created or enforced by federal, state, or city government; the Hollywood studios adopted the code in large part in the hopes of avoiding government censorship, preferring self-regulation to government regulation. The enforcement of the Production Code led to the dissolution of many local censorship boards.


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Hollywood worked within the confines of the Production Code until the late 1950s and the movies were faced with very serious competitive threats. The first threat came from a new technology, television, which did not require Americans to leave their house to watch moving pictures. Hollywood needed to offer the public something it could not get on television, which itself was under an even more restrictive censorship code.

In addition to the threat of television, there was also increasing competition from foreign films, such as
Vittorio De Sica’s Bicycle Thieves (1948),
the Swedish film One Summer of Happiness (1951),
and Ingmar Bergman’s Summer with Monika (1953).
Vertical integration in the movie industry had been found to violate anti-trust laws, and studios had been forced to give up ownership of theatres by the Supreme Court in United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. (1948). The studios had no way to keep foreign films out, and foreign films were not bound by the Production Code. (For De Sica’s film, there was a censorship controversy when the MPAA demanded a scene where the lead characters talk to the prostitutes of a brothel be removed, regardless of the fact that there was no sexual or provocative activity.) Some British films—such as
Victim (1961),
A Taste of Honey (1961),
and The Leather Boys (1963)
—challenged traditional gender roles and openly confronted the prejudices against homosexuals, all in clear violation of the Hollywood Production Code. In keeping with the changes in society, sexual content that would have previously been banned by the Code was being retained. The anti-trust rulings also helped pave the way for independent art houses that would show films created by people such as Andy Warhol who worked outside the studio system.

In 1952, in the case of Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously overruled its 1915 decision
(Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio) and held that motion pictures were entitled to First Amendment protection, so that the New York State Board of Regents could not ban
“The Miracle”, a short film that was one half of L’Amore (1948),
an anthology film directed by Roberto Rossellini. Film distributor Joseph Burstyn released the film in the U.S. in 1950, and the case became known as the “Miracle Decision” due to its connection to Rossellini’s film. That reduced the threat of government regulation, which had formerly been cited as justification for the Production Code, and the PCA’s powers over the Hollywood industry were greatly reduced.

By the 1950s, American culture also began to change. A boycott by the National Legion of Decency no longer guaranteed a film’s commercial failure, and several aspects of the code had slowly lost their taboo. In 1956, areas of the code were rewritten to accept subjects such as miscegenation, adultery, and prostitution. For example, the remake of a pre-Code film dealing with prostitution, Anna Christie, was cancelled by MGM twice, in 1940 and in 1946, as the character of Anna was not allowed to be portrayed as a prostitute. By 1962, such subject matter was acceptable and the original film was given a seal of approval.

By the late 1950s, increasingly explicit films began to appear, such as
Anatomy of a Murder (1959),
Suddenly Last Summer (1959),
and The Dark at the Top of the Stairs (1961).
The MPAA reluctantly granted the seal of approval for these films, although not until certain cuts were made. Due to its themes, Billy Wilder’s
Some Like It Hot (1959)
was not granted a certificate of approval, but it still became a box office smash, and, as a result, it further weakened the authority of the Code. At the forefront of contesting the Code was director Otto Preminger, whose films violated the Code repeatedly in the 1950s.
His 1953 film The Moon Is Blue — about a young woman who tries to play two suitors off against each other by claiming that she plans to keep her virginity until marriage — was released without a certificate of approval. He later made
The Man with the Golden Arm (1955),
which portrayed the prohibited subject of drug abuse, and
Anatomy of a Murder (1959), which dealt with murder and rape.
Like Some Like It Hot, Preminger’s films were direct assaults on the authority of the Production Code, and their success hastened its abandonment. In the early 1960s, films began to deal with adult subjects and sexual matters that had not been seen in Hollywood films since the early 1930s. The MPAA reluctantly granted the seal of approval for these films, although again not until certain cuts were made.

In 1964, the Holocaust film The Pawnbroker, directed by Sidney Lumet and starring Rod Steiger, was initially rejected because of two scenes in which the actresses Linda Geiser and Thelma Oliver fully expose their breasts, as well as due to a sex scene between Oliver and Jaime Sánchez described as “unacceptably sex suggestive and lustful”. Despite the rejection, the film’s producers arranged for Allied Artists to release the film without the Production Code seal, with the New York censors licensing the film without the cuts demanded by Code administrators. The producers appealed the rejection to the Motion Picture Association of America.
On a 6–3 vote, the MPAA granted the film an exception conditional on “reduction in the length of the scenes which the Production Code Administration found unprovable.” The requested reductions of nudity were minimal; the outcome was viewed in the media as a victory for the film’s producers.
The Pawnbroker
was the first film featuring bare breasts to receive Production Code approval. The exception to the code was granted as a “special and unique case” and was described by The New York Times at the time as “an unprecedented move that will not, however, set a precedent”. However, in Pictures at a Revolution, Mark Harris’ 2008 study of films during that era, Harris wrote that the MPAA approval was “the first of a series of injuries to the Production Code that would prove fatal within three years.”

In 1966, Warner Bros. released Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, the first film to feature the “Suggested for Mature Audiences” (SMA) label. When Jack Valenti became President of the MPAA in 1966, he was faced with censoring the film’s explicit language. Valenti negotiated a compromise: the word “screw” was removed, but other language remained, including the phrase “hump the hostess”. The film received Production Code approval despite the previously prohibited language.

That same year, the British-produced, American-financed film Blowup was denied Production Code approval. MGM released it anyway, the first instance of an MPAA member company distributing a film that did not have an approval certificate. That same year, the original and lengthy code was replaced by a list of eleven points. The points outlined that the boundaries of the new code would be current community standards and good taste. In addition, any film containing content deemed to be suitable for older audiences would feature the label SMA in its advertising. With the creation of this new label, the MPAA unofficially began classifying films.
By the late 1960s, enforcement had become impossible and the Production Code was abandoned entirely. The MPAA began working on a rating system, under which film restrictions would lessen. The MPAA film rating system went into effect on November 1, 1968, with four ratings: G for general audiences, M for mature content, R for restricted (under 17 not admitted without an adult), and X for sexually explicit content. By the end of 1968, Geoffrey Shurlock stepped down from his post.[50][51] In 1969, the Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow), directed by Vilgot Sjöman, was initially banned in the U.S. for its frank depiction of sexuality; however, this was overturned by the Supreme Court.

In 1970, because of confusion over the meaning of “mature audiences”, the M rating was changed to GP, and then in 1972 to the current PG, for “parental guidance suggested”. In 1984, in response to public complaints regarding the severity of horror elements in PG-rated titles such as Gremlins and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, the PG-13 rating was created as a middle tier between PG and R. In 1990, the X rating was replaced by NC-17 (under 17 not admitted), partly because of the stigma associated with the X rating, and partly because the X rating was not trademarked by the MPAA; pornographic bookstores and theaters were using their own X and XXX symbols to market products.

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HowTo Apply Vintage Nylons, Stockings or Fine Hosiery

The Mary Jane Style Today, Dressing in classic vintage pin up attire “HowTo” Apply Authentic stockings warn from Picturesque* Designer vintage nylons sheer with nude back seam ,keyhole top and dainty black ankle design with jewels there is quite a History in Hosery.Dress your legs elegantly so you are always dressed to kill
First a must is…
A garter belt, or suspender belt or suspenders, is the most common way of holding up stockings. It is a piece of lingerie worn around the waist like a belt which has “suspenders” or “stays” that clip to the tops of the stockings to hold them in place.
The History of the very Nylons you see in this tutorial…
The name of the new discovery, nylon, came from DuPont entering it in the New York World Fair in 1939. Ny(-lon) is the abbreviation for New York. The publicity was a hit and the basic products were advertised
Stockings were typically silk and pricey. When nylon stockings became available (May 15, 1940), DuPont sold nearly 800,000 the first day. By the end of the first year, 64 million stockings had been sold. They were still being produced the same as the silk stockings–”fully-fashioned” with hand-sewn backs.
A stocking frame was a mechanical knitting machine used in the textiles industry. It was invented by William Lee of Calverton near Nottingham in 1589. Its use, known traditionally as framework knitting, was the first major stage in the mechanisation of the textile industry, and played an important part in the early history of the Industrial Revolution.
By 1598 he was able to knit stockings from silk,A thriving business built up with the exiled Huguenot silk-spinners who had settled in the village of Spitalfields just outside the city. In 1663, the London Company of Framework Knitters was granted a charter. By about 1785, however, demand was rising for cheaper stockings made of cotton. The frame was adapted but became too expensive for individuals to buy, thus wealthy men bought the machines and hired them out to the knitters, providing the materials and buying the finished product. With increasing competition, they ignored the standards set by the Chartered Company. Frames were introduced to Leicester by Nicholas Alsop in around 1680, who encountered resistance and at first worked secretly in a cellar in Northgate Street, taking his own sons and the children of near relatives as apprentices.
In 1728, the Nottingham magistrates refused to accept the authority of the London Company, and the centre of the trade moved northwards to Nottingham, which also had a lace making industry.
The breakthrough with cotton stockings, however, came in 1758 when Jedediah Strutt introduced an attachment for the frame which produced what became known as the “Derby Rib”. The Nottingham frameworkers found themselves increasingly short of raw materials. Initially they used thread spun in India, but this was expensive and required doubling. Lancashire yarn was spun for fustian and varied in texture. They tried spinning cotton themselves but, being used to the long fibres of wool, experienced great difficulty. Meanwhile, the Gloucester spinners, who had been used to a much shorter wool, were able to handle cotton and their frameworkers were competing with the Nottingham producers.
Before the 1920s, women’s stockings, if worn, were worn for warmth. In the 1920s, as hemlines of women’s dresses rose, women began to wear stockings to cover the exposed legs. These stockings were sheer, first made of silk or rayon (then known as “artificial silk”),
In modern usage, stocking specifically refers to the form of women’s hosiery configured as two pieces, one for each leg (except for American and Australian English, where the term can also be a synonym pantyhose). The term hold-ups and thigh highs refers to stockings that stay up by the use of built-in elastic, while the word stockings is the general term or refers to the kind of stockings that need a suspender belt (garter belt, in American English), and are quite distinct from tights or pantyhose (American English).
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Hosiery Style Definitions
Cuban heel: A stocking with a heel made with folded over and sewn reinforcement.

Demi-toe: Stockings which have a reinforced toe with half the coverage on top as on the bottom. This results in a reinforcement that covers only the tip of the toes as opposed to the whole toe. These can be with or without a reinforced heel.

Denier: The lower the denier number the sheerer the garment. Stockings knitted with a higher denier tend to be less sheer but more durable.

Fishnet: Knitted stockings with a very wide open knit resembling a fish net.

Fencenet: Similar to fishnet, but with a much wider pattern. These are sometimes worn over another pair of stockings or pantyhose, such as matte or opaque, with a contrasting colour. Sometimes referred to as whalenets.

Full Fashioned: Fully fashioned stockings are knitted flat, the material is then cut and the two sides are then united by a seam up the back. Fully fashioned stockings were the most popular style until the 1960s.

Hold-ups (British English) or Stay-ups: Stockings that are held up by sewn-in elasticated bands (quite often a wide lace top band). In the US they are referred to as thigh-highs.

Knee-Highs: Stockings that terminate at or just barely below the knee. Also known as half-stockings, trouser socks, or socks.

Matte: Stockings which have a dull or non-lustre finish.

Mock seam: A false seam sewn into the back of a seamless stocking.

Nude heel: Stockings without reinforcement in the heel area.

Opaque: Stockings made of yarn which give them a heavier appearance (usually 40 denier or greater).

Point heel: in a Fully Fashioned stocking it is a heel in which the reinforced part ends in a triangle shape.

RHT: Abbreviation of reinforced heel and toe.

Open-toed: Stockings that stop at the base of the toe with a piece that goes between the first and second toes to hold them down. They can be worn with some open-toed shoes, especially to show off pedicured toes.

Sandalfoot: Stockings with a nude toe, meaning no heavier yarn in the toe than is in the leg. They are conceived to be worn with sandal or open-toe shoes.

Seamed: Stockings manufactured in the old Full-Fashioned manner with a seam running up the back of the leg. In the past they were manufactured by cutting the fabric and then sewing it together. Today stockings are generally fully knitted and a fake or mock seam is added up the back for a particular fashion look. Some brands also produce seamed hold-ups.

Seamless: Stockings knit in one operation on circular machines (one continuous operation) so that no seaming is required up the back.

Sheers: Stockings generally of a 15 to 20 denier.

Thigh-Highs: Stockings that terminate somewhere in the mid-thigh.

Suspender belt (British English) or Garter belt (American Eglish): a belt with straps to keep stockings (not hold-ups) on place: usually they have 4 straps, but may have also 6 or 8.
Ultra Sheer: A fine denier fiber which gives the ultimate in sheerness. Usually 10 denier.
Welt[disambiguation needed]: A fabric knitted separately and machine-sewn to the top of a stocking. Knit in a heavier denier yarn and folded double to give strength for supporter fastening.

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These Jewels vintage stockings in nude from Picturesque
are a great take on the classic stocking featuring an erray of heat fixed white luxury crystals on 15 denier nylon.
These nylons are a silky 100% Nylon and 60 Gauge.
Non stretching original form fitting, First Quality. Ultra Sexy !
They are old/new stock and wrapped in original tissue paper and comes with there original Picturesque Box.
A great item to wear or collect ! Made in USA by Sanson Hosiery Mills Inc.
These fabulously sexy nylon stockings are new/old stock and unworn.
The Nylon Stockings are in mint condition.
The Box have age marks and are not 100% perfect.
These nylon stockings are circa 40 – 50 years old and very extremely rare.

LOVE How To Puppet Show Valentine Special

My Happy Valentines Day Puppet Show!!!

Video Part 1 includes
The Basic Elements of A Puppet Show

First : A Script/Text, Scenario, Plan:

This is the starting point of the Puppet Show theatrical performance. The element most often considered as the domain of the playwright in Puppet Show theatre.
The Puppet Show playwright’s script is the text by which theatre is created.
It can be simplistic, as in the 16th century, with the scenarios used by the acting troupes of the Commedia dell’ arte,
or it can be elaborate, such as the works of William Shakespeare. The script, scenario, or plan is what the director uses as a blue print to build a Puppet Show production from.

The Process for A Puppet Show:

This is the coordination of the creative efforts usually headed up in Puppet Show theatre by the Puppet Show director.
It is the pure process by which the Puppet Show playwright’s work is brought to realization by the Puppet Show director,
actors, designers, technicians, dancers, musicians, and any other collaborators that come together on the script, scenario, or plan.
This is the works in progress stage of the Puppet Show.

The Product:A Puppet Show

This is the end result of the process of work involved in the Puppet Show.
The final product Puppet Show that results from all of the labors coming together to complete the finished work of Puppet Show script, scenario, and plan,
in union with all of the collaborators in the Puppet Show process to create the final product.
This is what the audience will witness as they sit in the Puppet Show theatre and view the work.

The Audience:

Puppet Show Theatre requires an audience.
For all of the arts public is essential.
The physical presence of an audience can change a Puppet Show performance, inspire actors, and create expectations.
Puppet Show Theatre is a living breathing art form. The presence of live Puppet Show actors on the stage in front of live Puppet Show audiences sets it apart from modern day films and television.

Let us now look to the person who is responsible for the starting point of the Puppet Show theatrical event. The initial Puppet Show creator of the script, scenario, or plan, as outlined above.
This person is the Puppet Show playwright. A Puppet Show playwright works in that branch of literature dealing with the writing and producing of Puppet Show plays for the Puppet Show theatre.
The literary composition that is written specifically for the Puppet Show stage in play format by the Puppet Show playwright.

The Puppet Show Playwright
The basic steps involved in the development of Puppet Show drama include:

1. Coming up with Puppet Show Thought/Theme/Ideas to be expressed through the work.

2. Determine the Genre and Style of the Puppet Show work

3. Outlining Basic Action of the Puppet Show work and Creating Plot.

4. Establish the Structure of the Puppet Show Play and Overall Framework

5. The Development of Characters presented in the Puppet Show work.

6. The Creation of Dialogue and the Language of the Puppet Show Characters.

7. Creating Puppet Show Music: This can involve the Rhythm of the Language or actual Music Composition and the Lyrics of the Puppet Show songs.

8. Establishing Puppet Show Spectacle: The visual and Environmental elements of the Puppet Show work.

9. Research of Subject Matter and Relevant issues presented in the Puppet Show play.

1. Puppet Show Thought/Theme/Ideas

What the Puppet Show play means as opposed to what happens (the plot).
Sometimes the theme is clearly stated in the Puppet Show title. It may be stated through Puppet Show dialogue by a Puppet Show character acting as the Puppet Show playwright’s voice.
Or it may be the Puppet Show theme is less obvious and emerges only after some study or thought.
The Puppet Show abstract issues and feelings that grow out of the Puppet Show dramatic action.

2. Puppet Show Action/Plot

The events of a Puppet Show play; the Puppet Show story as opposed to the Puppet Show theme; what happens rather than what it means.
The Puppet Show plot must have some sort of unity and clarity by setting up a Puppet Show pattern by which each action initiating the next rather than standing alone without connection to what came before it or what follows.
In the Puppet Show plot of a Puppet Show play, Puppet Show characters are involved in conflict that has a pattern of movement. The action and movement in the Puppet Show play begins from the initial entanglement,
through rising action, climax, and falling action to Puppet Show resolution.

3. Puppet Show Characters

These are the Puppet Show people presented in the Puppet Show play that are involved in the perusing the Puppet Show plot. Each Puppet Show character should have their own distinct personality, age, appearance, beliefs,
socio economic background, and language.

4. Puppet Show Language

The Puppet Show word choices made by the Puppet Show playwright and the enunciation of the actors of the language. Puppet Show Language and dialog delivered by the Puppet Show characters moves the Puppet Show plot and action along,
provides the Puppet Show exposition, defines the distinct Puppet Show characters. Each Puppet Show playwright can create their own specific Puppet Show style in relationship to language choices they use in establishing Puppet Show
character and dialogue.

5. Puppet Show Music

Puppet Show Music can encompass the rhythm of dialogue and speeches in a Puppet Show play or can also mean the aspects of the melody and music compositions as with musical Puppet Show theatre.
Each Puppet Show theatrical presentation delivers music, rhythm and melody in its own distinctive manner. Puppet Show Music is not a part of every Puppet Show play. But, Puppet Show music can be included to mean all sounds in a
Puppet Show production. Puppet Show Music can expand to all sound effects, the Puppet Show actor’s voices, songs, and instrumental music played as underscore in a Puppet Show play. Puppet Show Music creates patterns and establishes
tempo in Puppet Show theatre. In the aspects of the Puppet Show musical the Puppet Show songs are used to push the Puppet Show plot forward and move the Puppet Show story to a higher level of intensity. Puppet Show Composers and
lyricist work together with Puppet Show playwrights to strengthen the themes and ideas of the Puppet Show play. Puppet Show Character’s wants and desires can be strengthened for the audience through Puppet Show lyrics and music.

6. Puppet Show Spectacle

Puppet Show Point of Attack

The moment of the Puppet Show play at which the main action of the Puppet Show plot begins. This may occur in the first scene of the Puppet Show , or it may occur after several scenes of exposition.
The point of attack is the main Puppet Show action by which all others will arise. It is the point at which the main Puppet Show complication is introduced. Puppet Show Point of attack can sometimes works
hand in hand with a Puppet Show’s inciting incident, which is the first incident leading to the rising action of the Puppet Show . Sometimes the inciting incident is an event that occurred somewhere in the Puppet Show character’s
past and is revealed to the Puppet Show audience through exposition.

Puppet Show Exposition

Puppet Show Exposition is important information that the Puppet Show audience needs to know in order to follow the Puppet Show main story line of the Puppet Show play. It is the aspects of the Puppet Show story that the Puppet Show
audience may hear about but that they will not witness in actual Puppet Show scenes. It encompasses the past actions of the Puppet Show characters before the Puppet Show play’s opening Puppet Show scenes progress.

Puppet Show Rising Action

Puppet Show Rising action is the section of the Puppet Show plot beginning with the point of attack and/or inciting Puppet Show incident and proceeding forward to the crisis onto the Puppet Show climax. The action of the Puppet Show
will rise as it set up a situation of increasing intensity and anticipation. These Puppet Show scenes make up the body of the Puppet Show and usually create a sense of continuous mounting suspense in the Puppet Show audience.

The Puppet Show Climax/Crisis

All of the earlier scenes and actions in a Puppet Show will build technically to the highest level of dramatic intensity. This section of the Puppet Show is generally referred to as the moment of the Puppet Show climax.
This is the moment where the major dramatic Puppet Show questions rise to the highest level, the mystery hits the unraveling point, and the Puppet Show culprits are revealed. This should be the point of the highest Puppet Show stage
of dramatic intensity in the action of the Puppet Show . The whole combined actions of the Puppet Show generally lead up to this moment.

Puppet Show Resolution/Obligatory Puppet Show Scene

The Puppet Show resolution is the moment of the Puppet Show in which the Puppet Show conflicts are resolved. It is the solution to the conflict in the Puppet Show , the answer to the Puppet Show mystery, and the clearing up of the
final details. This is the Puppet Show scene that answers the questions raised earlier in the Puppet Show. In this Puppet Show scene the methods and motives are revealed to the Puppet Show audience.

The Puppet Show spectacle in the Puppet Show theatre can involve all of the aspects of Puppet Show scenery, costumes, and special effects in a Puppet Show production. The visual elements of the Puppet Show created for the Puppet Show
theatrical event. The qualities determined by the Puppet Show playwright that create the world and atmosphere of the Puppet Show play for the Puppet Show audience’s eye.

Climatic Puppet Show Structure

I. Puppet Show Plot begins late in story, closer to the very end or climax

II. Covers a short space of time, perhaps a few hours, or at most a few days

III. Contains a few solid, extended Puppet Show scenes, such as three acts with each act comprising one long scene

IV. Puppet Show Occurs in a restricted locale, one room or one house

V. Number of Puppet Show characters is severely limited, usually not more than six or eight

VI. Puppet Show Plot in linear and moves in a single line with few subplots or counter plots

VII. Line of Puppet Show action proceeds in a cause and effect chain. The Puppet Show characters and events are closely linked in a sequence of logical, almost inevitable development

Episodic Puppet Show Structure

I. Puppet Show Plot begins relatively early in the Puppet Show story and moves through a series of episodes

II. Puppet Show Covers a longer period of time: weeks, months, and sometimes years

III. Many short, fragmented scenes; sometimes an alternation of short and long scenes

IV. Puppet Show May range over an entire city or even several countries

V. Profusion of Puppet Show characters, sometimes several dozen

VI. Frequently marked by several threads of Puppet Show action, such as two parallel plots, or scenes of comic relief in a serous Puppet Show

VII. Puppet Show Scenes are juxtaposed tone to one another. An event may result from several causes, or no apparent cause, but arises in a network or web of Puppet Show circumstances

Puppet Show Conclusion

Artistic consideration in the Puppet Show playwriting requires selection and arrangement. Puppet Show Art is skill acquired by experience, study, and clear observations.
Puppet Show Playwrights must consciously set about making choices with a competent plan and creative imagination. Only then than we consider the Puppet Show playwrights work as a viable start to the Puppet Show theatrical process.
Before anyone begins to write a Puppet Show it is important to understand the medium for which you intend on writing. Writing for the Puppet Show stage demands an understanding of two fundamentals:
the essence of Puppet Show drama and the nature of Puppet Show theatre.

Video 2 :The Example… A Valentine Puppet Show by Maryjane a professional puppeteer!!!
TMJS V puppet show
Happy Valentines Day!!!
* if you shop Amazon Please always come to to click Amazon Links Thank You Much!!!

How to glitter eyes ep#14

A fun durable eye decorum glitter eye shadow shimmers and pixy dust in eye shadow is fun but the design of glitter shine and detailed texture can add durability if you are engaging in high fashion and high impact simultaneously this might be a new fix for you use only cosmetic grade glitter from a makeup store or cosmetic line craft glitter has harsh cut edges that could cause serious damage to your lovely eye balls Mac glitter is good for example the glitter is manufactured not to damage or cut the eyes …how is the glitter going to stay ? Eye lash glue any brand or type of glue to attach false eye lashes you do want to select a clear drying eyelash adhesive
First apply your normal basic face then add false lashes (I do recommend this it helps keep excess glitter out of your eyes &glitter is dramatic so go all the way!) then have a cosmetic wet nap or baby wipe handy there are different brushes or mini spoon implements you could use but after numerous applications I feel a finger tip is best so step 1 place a thin line of eyelash glue just above false lash and then shape up in a standard V eye shadow shape or a line extending below the brow bone on the outer side of your eye lid place a finger tip in pot of glitter and place directly on glue and repeat until glue is covered in the desired shape … multiple colors or shapes are fun this makeup tutorial shows a basic 2 color style (the wet wipe is to clean glitter off of your finger or glue tip …and since glitter eyes is waterproof and smudge proof ,when you would like to remove it all peel off eyelashes from inside of eye out keeping eyes closed then place wet wipe on eyelid pat softly to moisten eyelid then softly feel glue roll up on eyelid and gently wipe I recommend wiping out away from your nose fold wipe to clean side and repeat until all glitter unglued then wash face in shower or as you usually would

How to holiday party makeup Ep#13

A Classic naturally elegant look to go with anything from a little black dress to a vast array of holiday gowns or cocktail dresses use your natural beauty Pick a fun coordinating color go light on the eye shadow base then a medium to deep color blend well so there are no defining lines pick a sexy lip color that gives you the feel of decadence this night might be full of family or business party but you will survive best if you are excited for a magical evening
blonds soft peachy lips or for a tan warm oranges for lips and cheeks
brunets deep strong colors
red heads neutral to bronze but to really pop
blue eyes are Gold, bronze, copper, champagne, yellow-beige, peach ,complimented with grey or brown purple is magical as well
brown eyes Bronze, peach, purple, navy, teal, green
terracotta to peachy fun
hazel can go Gray, dusty pink, burgundy, deep purple, yellow-brown
coppers to violet
green is great Sepia, rust, purple, pink
false eyelashes are a must , pick ½ lashes to place on the outer half or a small to medium full lash if you have big eyes go big on lashes &Happy Holidays